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Articles by N Dharmaraj
Total Records ( 2 ) for N Dharmaraj
  P Wang , N Dharmaraj , M. J Brayman and D. D. Carson

Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein abundantly expressed on nearly all epithelial tissues and overexpressed by many cancer cells. Previous studies from our lab showed that progesterone receptor (PR)B is a strong stimulator of MUC1 gene expression. It is reported that liganded peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) stimulates Muc1 expression in murine trophoblast. Here, we demonstrate that although the PPAR ligand, rosiglitazone, stimulates the murine Muc1 promoter in HEC1A, a human uterine epithelial cell line, rosiglitazone alone, has no significant effect on basal human MUC1 promoter activity. In fact, rosiglitazone treatment antagonizes progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 promoter activity and protein expression in two human uterine epithelial cell lines and T47D human breast cancer cells. This response is antagonized by the PPAR antagonist, GW9662, as well as a dominant-negative form of PPAR, demonstrating the response is mediated by PPAR. Additional studies indicate that PPAR activation does not change PR binding to the MUC1 promoter but generally antagonizes progesterone activity by stimulating PRB degradation and inhibiting progesterone-induced PRB phosphorylation. Collectively, these studies indicate that PPAR activation inhibits PRB activity through both acute (phosphorylation) and long-term (PRB degradation) pathways.

  N Dharmaraj , P Wang and D. D. Carson

Mucin 1 (MUC1), a transmembrane mucin expressed at the apical surface of uterine epithelia, is a barrier to microbial infection and enzymatic attack. MUC1 loss at implantation sites appears to be required to permit embryo attachment and implantation in most species. MUC1 expression is regulated by progesterone (P) and proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF and interferon (IFN). TNF and IFN are highly expressed in uterine tissues under conditions where MUC1 expression is also high and activate MUC1 expression via their downstream transcription factors, nuclear factor (NF) B and signal transducers and activators of transcription. P receptor (PR) regulates MUC1 gene expression in a PR isoform-specific fashion. Here we demonstrate that interactions among PR isoforms and cytokine-activated transcription factors cooperatively regulate MUC1 expression in a human uterine epithelial cell line, HES. Low doses of IFN and TNF synergistically stimulate MUC1 promoter activity, enhance PRB stimulation of MUC1 promoter activity and cooperate with PRA to stimulate MUC1 promoter activity. Cooperative stimulation of MUC1 promoter activity requires the DNA-binding domain of the PR isoforms. MUC1 mRNA and protein expression is increased by cytokine and P treatment in HES cells stably expressing PRB. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate efficient recruitment of NFB, p300, SRC3 (steroid receptor coactivator 3), and PR to the MUC1 promoter. Collectively, our studies indicate a dynamic interplay among cytokine-activated transcription factors, PR isoforms and transcriptional coregulators in modulating MUC1 expression. This interplay may have important consequences in both normal and pathological contexts, e.g. implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages.

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