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Articles by N Back
Total Records ( 2 ) for N Back
  T Blom , N Back , A. L Mutka , R Bittman , Z Li , A de Lera , P. T Kovanen , U Diczfalusy and E. Ikonen

Rationale: The synthetic sphingosine analog FTY720 is undergoing clinical trials as an immunomodulatory compound, acting primarily via sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation. Sphingolipid and cholesterol homeostasis are closely connected but whether FTY720 affects atherogenesis in humans is not known.

Objective: We examined the effects of FTY720 on the processing of scavenged lipoprotein cholesterol in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages.

Methods and Results: FTY720 did not affect cholesterol uptake but inhibited its delivery to the endoplasmic reticulum, reducing cellular free cholesterol cytotoxicity. This was accompanied by increased levels of Niemann–Pick C1 protein (NPC1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC)A1 proteins and increased efflux of endosomal cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I. These effects were not dependent on sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation. Instead, FTY720 stimulated the production of 27-hydroxycholesterol, an endogenous ligand of the liver X receptor, leading to liver X receptor–induced upregulation of ABCA1. Fluorescently labeled FTY720 was targeted to late endosomes, and the FTY720-induced upregulation of ABCA1 was NPC1-dependent, but the endosomal exit of FTY720 itself was not.

Conclusions: We conclude that FTY720 decreases cholesterol toxicity in primary human macrophages by reducing the delivery of scavenged lipoprotein cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum and facilitating its release to physiological extracellular acceptors. Furthermore, FTY720 stimulates 27-hydroxycholesterol production, providing an explanation for the atheroprotective effects and identifying a novel mechanism by which FTY720 modulates signaling.

  R Hynynen , M Suchanek , J Spandl , N Back , C Thiele and V. M. Olkkonen

Oxysterol binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2) is a member of the oxysterol binding protein family, previously shown to bind 25-hydroxycholesterol and implicated in cellular cholesterol metabolism. We show here that ORP2 also binds 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol [22(R)OHC], 7-ketocholesterol, and cholesterol, with 22(R)OHC being the highest affinity ligand of ORP2 (Kd 1.4 x 10–8 M). We report the localization of ORP2 on cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) and its function in neutral lipid metabolism using the human A431 cell line as a model. The ORP2 LD association depends on sterol binding: Treatment with 5 µM 22(R)OHC inhibits the LD association, while a mutant defective in sterol binding is constitutively LD bound. Silencing of ORP2 using RNA interference slows down cellular triglyceride hydrolysis. Furthermore, ORP2 silencing increases the amount of [14C]cholesteryl esters but only under conditions in which lipogenesis and LD formation are enhanced by treatment with oleic acid. The results identify ORP2 as a sterol receptor present on LD and provide evidence for its role in the regulation of neutral lipid metabolism, possibly as a factor that integrates the cellular metabolism of triglycerides with that of cholesterol.

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