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Articles by Mushtaq Ahmad
Total Records ( 13 ) for Mushtaq Ahmad
  B.A. Padder , M.D. Shah , Mushtaq Ahmad , T.A. Sofi , F.A. Ahanger and Aflaq Hamid
  Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is one of the most damaging diseases worldwide on apple and is currently managed mainly by scheduled applications of fungicides. The aim of the present study was to understand the pathogen population structure in Jammu and Kashmir which is important for breeding and deployment of resistant cultivars. Twenty-seven isolates of V. inaequalis were sampled from commercial apple growing areas to estimate differences in pathogen populations using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 10 -and 20-mer primers. RAPD data analysis grouped 27 isolates in to three major clusters accommodating 10, 10 and 7 isolates each. The categories did not follow any geographic or source cultivar pattern. Allele frequencies among the three populations varied from 0.00 to 1.00. The average genetic diversity within each population (HS) over all loci studied was 0.21, 0.23 and 0.20 in Ganderbal, Pulwama and Srinagar, respectively thereby showing high genetic diversity within each population. The average genetic differentiation at a single locus among all sampled populations (GST) was 0.12. The overall gene flow (Nm) was 3.54 while the gene flow values at a single locus ranged from 0.70 to 69.32. Pair-wise genetic differentiation values (FST) among all loci were low, thereby indicating high diversity among the three populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) obtained after clustering the isolates at district level showed highly significant genetic differentiation among populations with 5.46 and 94.54% genetic variability recorded among and within district populations, respectively. Population genetic analysis of V. inaequalis is the first molecular analysis of this pathogen from the India and especially from Jammu and Kashmir, a north-western Himalayan state of India.
  Wasim Ahmad , Mushtaq Ahmad , Rahmat Ali Khan , Nadia Mushtaq , Jean Paul Kamdem and Joao Batista Teixeira da Rocha
  Background and Objective: Ischemia is a stern decline or absolute obstruction in blood, flowing to various parts of the body. This pathophysiological episode causes cerebral mutilation, a protuberant feature of stroke, which is the 3rd leading cause of demise after cancer and heart attack globally. The principal objective of this work was to understand the sights of neuroprotection provided by M. Officinalis against OGD-R in rat’s brain cortex slices. Materials and Methods: Mitochondrial viability assays were performed via the colorimetric 3(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. After 2 h of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 1 h of reperfusion, only viable slices showed the ability to trim down MTT into a purple "Formazan" product that was soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Absorbance was measured at 570 and 630 nm and the net absorbance (A570-A630) was taken as an index of cell viability. Results: The results of the present investigation demonstrated that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by re-oxygenation led to cell damage/death via an amplifying ROS/free radicals production in rat’s brain cortex slices compared with control after 2 h OGD followed by 1h reperfusion. Melissa officinalis at a concentration of 40 μg mL–1 displayed potential role in neuro-protection against OGD, followed by re-oxygenation in mitochondrial viability assays in vitro. In addition, Melissa officinalis declined or slow down the production of free radicals in the supernatant and slices homogenate of cortex at the end of 2 h OGD followed by 1 h reperfusion. Furthermore, higher concentrations of Melissa officinalis slightly showed neurotoxicity for cortex slices which might be attributed to its pro-oxidant outcome. Conclusion: The results obtained during this study offer evidence for neuroprotective properties of M. officinalis against in vitro ischemia in rat’s cortex slices. Melissa officinalis could be considered as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of neuronal cell death in Ischemia induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation of cortex slices, strengthening further investigations to define the actual component for its use in human. Furthermore, in vivo ischemic models are now in progress to confirm and better characterize its neuroprotection.
  Mushtaq Ahmad , Zarina Binti Itam , Salmia Beddu , Firas Basim Ismail Alanimi and Shamini A/P Soanathan
  This project aimed to determine solar heat temperature variations in copper and rubber pipes embedded into the asphalt pavement using finite element method. The significant of the project to explore sustainable energy generation while using pavement surface as a heat collector therefore solar efficiency beneath paved surface has to determine. The arrangement of copper and rubber pipe in asphalt pavement is serpentine. The asphalt pavement size of 300×300 and 300×500 mm is simulated in ANSYS. Asphalt pavement is embedded with serpentine copper and rubber pipes of diameter of 40 mm. The solar heat temperature is collected in asphalt at depths of 50, 100 and 150 mm. Pipes are filled with liquid (water) to maintain or cool the temperature at night time. The stated asphalt pavement size samples have created where copper and rubber pipes are embedded and temperature collection among each sample is recorded. The findings of the project indicated that larger surface area of asphalt pavement (30×500 mm) exposed to the Sunlight collect more energy than smaller (300×300 mm) size of asphalt pavement. The serpentine arrangement of copper and rubber pipes embedded in asphalt pavement has slight difference of solar heat collections. The solar heat collected at 50 mm depth is higher than 100 and 150 mm depths.
  Salmia Beddu , Zarina Binti Itam , Mushtaq Ahmad , Firas Basim Ismail Alanimi and Mahyun Zainoodin
  Malaysia has potential to generate alternative renewable solar energy. Rubber tube was embedded in asphalt pavement at a depth of 75 mm. Thermal behavior of solar heat was studied at different location in asphalt pavement. Asphalt pavement top surface which is exposed to the direct sunlight, temperature above the rubber tube, temperature of liquid (water) filled in rubber tube and temperature below the rubber tube were the locations chosen to observe the thermal behavior and heat transformation from top to bottom. The observation was carried out for 3 days in asphalt pavement and using thermodynamic first law to find the heat efficiency. Study concludes that the maximum surface temperature reach to 59.5°C and water inside rubber tube temperature reach to 54.7°C. In the result minimum 2.4% and maximum heat efficiency 22.7% produced by using rubber tube the case might be change using other metals.
  Rehana Asghar , Mushtaq Ahmad , Muhammad Zafar , Abida Akram , Jamshaid Mahmood and Maqbool Hassan
  Acacia modesta Wall (Phulai) belong to family Mimosaceae is being regularly used as miswak (tooth brush) for teeth cleaning in various parts of Pakistan. It is medium size tree, 4-7 meter in height and flowering period is from March-May. The present study was confined to check antibacterial efficacy of twigs extract against dental pathogens. The study was conducted in traditional drug section of National Institute of Health, Pakistan. Lactobacillus (gram positive) strain of bacteria was cultured from dental carriers in control conditions. The effect was determined by disc method. The pharmacognostic study revealed that the extract has significant antibacterial efficacy against lactobacterial triclosan.
  Munir Ahmad , Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem , Mushtaq Ahmad and Ali H. Sayyed
  To determine time trends in mortality for various insecticides, which are being used against cotton pests, the fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura was collected from Muzaffar Garh and tested for pyrethroids, organophosphate and new chemistry insecticides. The efficacy of the insecticides was examined by time-oriented mortality at LC50, through leaf-dip bioassays in the laboratory. In sodium channel agonists, endosulfan was the most efficient insecticide. The cholinesterase inhibitors tested, chlorpyrifos showed high efficiency while phoxim performed better in time-oriented mortality. Emamectin benzoate proved to be the most efficient insecticide in new chemistry insecticides tested. Spinosad and indoxacarb had almost similar LC50 and LT50 values. The least effective insecticide found was abamectin. The results are discussed in relation to Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
  Sarfaraz Khan Marwat , Mir Ajab Khan , Muhammad Aslam Khan , Mushtaq Ahmad , Muhammad Zafar , Fazal- ur-Rehman and Shazia Sultana
  The present research work is based on nine herbaceous plant species: Agaricus campestris L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Beta vulgaris L. Citrulus lanatus (Thunb.) Mats. & Nakai, Cucumis sativus L., Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. mentioned in Holy Quran and Ahadith. These plants were collected from Dera Ismail Khan District, NWFP, Pakistan, during 2007. This is a part of check list of medicinal flora and their uses enlisted in Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic literature. The main aim of this study is to document the knowledge of ethnobotanical importance of vegetables in the light of Islam. In view of the importance of this study related comprehensive and detailed data was collected. Complete macro and microscopic detailed morphological features of these species were discussed. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names, family followed by Quranic name, Arabic name, English name, Local/vernicular name, habit and habitat, parts used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran and Ahadith. It is concluded that herbal medicines are being widely used in the world because of better cultural acceptability, least injurious with none or much reduced side effects.
  Sarfaraz Khan Marwat , Mir Ajab Khan , Muhammad Aslam Khan , Fazal -ur-Rehman , Mushtaq Ahmad , Muhammad Zafar and Shazia Sultana
  The present research work is based on Three woody plant species: Salvadora persica, L. Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. and Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. mentioned in the 16th Ayat of Sura Saba in Holy Quran and Ahadith. These plants were collected from Dera Ismail Khan District, NWFP, Pakistan, during 2007. This is a part of check list of medicinal flora and their uses enlisted in Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic literature. The main aim of this study is to document the knowledge of ethnobotanical importance of these plants in the light of Islam. In view of the importance of this study related comprehensive and detailed data was collected. Complete macro and microscopic detailed morphological features of these species were discussed. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names, family followed by Quranic name, Arabic name, English name, Local/Vernicular name, habit and habitat, distribution, parts used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran, Ahadith. It is concluded that herbal medicines are being widely used in the world because of better cultural acceptability, least injurious with none or much reduced side effects.
  Sammia Yasmin , Muhammad Akram Kashmiri , Muhammad Nadeem Asghar , Mushtaq Ahmad and Ayesha Mohy-ud-Din
  Abutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae) and Abutilon muticum DC. (Malvaceae) are traditional medicinal herbs used for analgesic, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, and hypoglycemic properties. These effects may be correlated with the presence of antioxidant compounds. Extracts in organic solvents from the aerial parts and roots of both species were prepared and evaluated for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of all the extracts of both plants was found, employing ABTS and FRAP assays. TEAC values ranged from 3.019 to 10.5 μM for n-hexane and butanol fractions of Abutilon indicum and from 2.247 to 14.208 μM for n-hexane and butanol fractions of Abutilon muticum, respectively, using the ABTS assay. The FRAP assay showed reducing powers of the fractions in the order of butanol > ethyl acetate > chloroform > n-hexane and butanol > chloroform > hexane > ethyl acetate for Abutilon indicum and Abutilon muticum, respectively. EC50 and TEC50 values for the extracts of both plants were determined using the DPPH free radical assay. The reaction kinetics with this free radical indicated the presence of both slow reacting and fast reacting antioxidant components in the extracts of both plants. The antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was found to be a dose-dependent activity. The results obtained in the present study indicate that both Abutilon species are potential sources of natural antioxidants.
  Mushtaq Ahmad , R.S. Singh , Zahoor Ahmad Wafai and M.G. Bamnote
  Background: Aloe vera, is a natural hepatoprotective agent used alone or an ingredient of number of medicinal preparations in Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) and in folk medicine across the globe for different liver ailments. However, considerable number of them lacks scientific proof for their claims. Hence, Aloe vera was evaluated for its protective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in wistar albino mice and rabbits. Materials and methods: Two species of the animals (rabbit and mice) were used to evaluate Aloe vera for its effects on histopathology, biochemistry and mortality induced by carbon tetrachloride in experimental setup. The animals were divided into main three groups (GI, GII and GIII) of eighteen animals each. Each group was further divided into three subgroups of six animals each. Depending upon the treatment protocol, subgroup ‘a’ received linseed oil as control. Subgroup ‘b’ received CCl4. While as subgroup ‘c’ received extract of Aloe vera prior to CCl4 administration. Results: Animals pretreated with Aloe vera and subsequently treated with CCl4 showed significant reduction in histopathological changes (p<0.05), biochemical changes (p<0.05) and mortality rate (p<0.05) in comparison to the animals treated with CCl4 alone. Conclusion: This study reveals the hepatoprotective effect of Aloe vera against CCl4 induced liver toxicity.
  M.S. Dar , Irtefa Mohammed , T.A. Sofi , F.A. Ahanger , M.D. Shah , Mushtaq Ahmad , Aflaq Hamid , A.A. Mir , Asha Nabi and B.A. Padder
  Apple scab caused by a fungus Venturia inaequalis cause enormous losses to growers both qualitatively and quantitatively. In order to manage the crop, farmers routinely spray 8-12 fungicides from pink bud till harvest. Hence, the best strategy to manage the disease is planting apple scab resistant cultivars. In the present study, four races viz., (0), (1), (2) and (1, 2) were reported from various commercial apple growing regions of Kashmir. Apple scab races were spatially distributed in all apple growing regions of Kashmir. Race 1 was most prevalent among the four races. Screening of 31 apple genotypes under controlled conditions revealed majority of commercial cultivars susceptible. Genotypes carrying RVi3 to RVi13 scab resistance genes along with the cultivars American Apirouge, H27, Shireen and Firdous (latter two contain RVi6 scab resistance gene) were found resistant to all the four races present in Kashmir. Resistant genotypes reported in the present study can easily be exploited by breeders for management of apple scab resistance using marker assisted selection approach.
  Mushtaq Ahmad , Gul Zaffar , S.D. Mir , S.M. Razvi , M.A. Rather and M.R. Mir
 

(Case No. 31072013)

Professor Y.M. Agayev Agricultural Biotechnilogy Research Institute of Iran (ABRII) Mahdasht Road, P.O. Box 31535-1897, Karaj Iran, pointed out a plagiarism in a paper published in Research Journal of Medicinal Plant Volume 5 Number 6, 630-649, 2011.

On the receipt of Professor Y.M. Agayev’s letter, the case forwarded to the Ethics Committee of the Science Alert. As per the report of the Ethics Committee, article entitled “Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Strategies for Enhancing Productivity” authored by Mushtaq Ahmad, Gul Zaffar, S.D. Mir, S.M. Razvi, M.A. Rather and M.R. Mir from Division of Pant Breeding and Genetics, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Campus, 191 12-Srinagar, Kashmir published in Research Journal of Medicinal Plant Volume 5 Number 6, 630-649, 2011, contains substantial sections of text that have been taken verbatim from earlier publication without clear and unambiguous attribution.

Science Alert considers misappropriation of intellectual property and duplication of text from other authors or publications without clear and unambiguous attribution totally unacceptable.

Plagiarism is a violation of copyright and a serious breach of scientific ethics. The Editors and Publisher have agreed to officially retract this article.

Science Alert is highly thankful to Professor Y.M. Agayev for pointing out this plagiarism.

Detail of article from which text has been copied by Mushtaq Ahmad:

Y.M. Agayev, A.M. Shakib, S. Soheilivand and M. Fathi, 2007. BREEDING OF SAFFRON (CROCUS SATIVUS): POSSIBILITIES AND PROBLEMS, 203-207, 2007.

www.actahort.org/books/739/739_25.htm

  Khalid Pervaiz AKHTAR , Ghulam SARWAR , Matthew DICKINSON , Mushtaq AHMAD , Muhammad Ahsanul HAQ , Sohail HAMEED and Muhammad Javeed IQBAL
  Phyllody is a serious disease of sesame in Pakistan. In the present study investigations were carried out on the symptomatology, etiology, and transmission of this disease. Floral virescence, phyllody, and proliferation are the most common symptoms. Sometimes these symptoms are accompanied by yellowing, cracking of seed capsules, germination of seeds in capsules, and formation of dark exudates on the foliage. Shoot apex fasciation has also been occasionally observed, but no phytoplasma DNA has been detected in fasciated plants using PCR assays. Light microscopy of hand-cut sections treated with Dienes' stain showed blue areas in the phloem region of phyllody-infected plants. Pleomorphic bodies (phytoplasma structures) were observed in phloem sieve elements in diseased plants using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Amplification of a phytoplasma characteristic 1250-bp 16S rDNA fragment confirmed that sesame was infected by a phytoplasma, and RFLP profiling and sequencing confirmed that the associated phytoplasma had the greatest homology to 16SrII-D group phytoplasmas. Phyllody disease was successfully transmitted by grafting dodder (Cuscuta compestris) and leafhopper (Orosius albicinctus). Treatment of infected plants with tetracycline-HCl provided temporary recovery from the disease.
 
 
 
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