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Articles by Mushtaq T.B. AL-Zuhariy
Total Records ( 4 ) for Mushtaq T.B. AL-Zuhariy
  Mushtaq T.B. AL-Zuhariy and Waleed H. Hassan
  Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of Aflatoxin (AF) B1 (AFB1) and evaluate the role of Ganoderma lucidum (GL), Andrographolide (AP) and Turmeric curcuma (CM) in reducing these toxic effects in broiler chickens. Material and methods: A total of 250 (Ross-308) one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups (T1-T5) with 50 chicks per group. All groups except for T5 were fed diets that were contaminated with AFs and the groups were treated as follows: T1: Received 0.2% (2 g kg–1) GL as a feed additive. T2: Received 0.2% (2 g kg–1) AP as a feed additive. T3: Received 0.2% (2 g kg–1) CM as a feed additive. T4: Was a positive control (vaccinated but not treated). T5: Was a negative control (not vaccinated or treated). At ages 7, 15 and 25 days, all groups except T5 were vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND) (La Sota) and at 12 days, they were vaccinated against Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) (intermediate D78 strain) (in drinking water). Twenty chicks from each group were challenged with a local virulent ND virus (NDV) isolate (ELD50 105) at 35 days. The AF content was 46.768 ppb in starter diets and 48.661 ppb in the final diet. Results: The GL-fed chicks produced the highest variable antibody titer (Abs), not significant (p<0.05) hepatic and spleen levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), significantly different (p<0.05) levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and highly significant (p<0.05) hepatic and spleen levels of antioxidant defense compounds (Glutathione Reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), followed by T3 and T2, respectively, in comparison with T5 and T4. In addition, T1, T2 and T3 showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in Average Daily Gain (ADG) and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the feed:gain ratio (F:G) compared to T4. However, the Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI) in the above groups was not significantly different (p<0.05) during the trial period. Conclusion: The study showed the role of GL, AP and CM in reducing the negative effects of AFs by decreasing oxidative stress and immunosuppression in broiler chickens.
  Rashad A. Mohammed and Mushtaq T.B. AL-Zuhariy
  Objective: The current study aimed to use lymphokines from birds hyper-immunized against Salmonella typhimurum to enhance the immune response against Newcastle disease (ND) and to limit the use of vaccinal viruses that have been recently shown not to give absolute protection. Materials and Methods: Two groups of chicks were used: The first group was vaccinated with three doses of Salmonella typhimurum at 7, 14 and 21 days and the second group was not vaccinated and was considered a control group. Salmonella-immune lymphokines (S-ILK) were obtained from the T cells of the first group at 30 days, while non-immune lymphokines (N-ILK) were obtained from the T cells of the second group. Then, a total of 300 (Ross-308) 1 day old broiler chickens were randomly divided into 6 treatment groups (G1-G6) with 50 chicks in each group and treated as follows: G1: Treated with salmonella-immune lymphokines (S-ILK) and challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). G2: Treated with non-immune lymphokines (N-ILK) and challenged with NDV. G3: Non-treated and challenged with NDV. G4: Non-treated and naturally infected with NDV. G5: Treated with salmonella-immune lymphokines S-ILK and not challenged. G6: Non-treated and non-challenged. Results: The results of immunity measured by ELISA and a hemagglutination inhibition test (HI) showed a significant decrease in the level (p<0.05) of maternal antibody titer (Abs) against ND on the seventh day after the challenge compared to the control group but on days 14 and 21, there was a slight increase in the level (p<0.05) of the antibody titer in G1 and G2 compared to the other groups in which no antibody titer was recorded. On the 28th day, the G3 and G4 groups recorded a significant increase (p<0.05) in the antibodies against ND and high mortality rates, while the G1 group revealed a moderate increase with no mortality. No titers were recorded in the G5 and G6 groups because they were not exposed to any challenge. Conclusion: The present study concludes that S-ILK provides absolute protection to chicks against NDV by enhancing their immune response and reduces virus isolation in living tissue following challenge with virulent local Newcastle isolate.
  Mushtaq T.B. AL-Zuhariy , D. Sahar Abdulhasan , SaharHamdi Abdulmaged and Ihsan M. Shihab
  Objective: The present study was designed to reduce infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in broiler chickens because commercial vaccines are not able to provide absolute protection due to the absence of cross immunity between strains, as well as recurrent genetic mutations of IBV. Salmonella-immune lymphokines (S-ILK) from hyperimmunized birds with Salmonella enteritidis were used to enhance the immune resistance of broiler chicks and to reduce the replication of IBV in infected tissues. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 250 one-day-old broiler chicks divided into five groups. All groups were treated on the first day as follows: G1: Injected with 0.5 mL S-ILK intraperitoneally and after 30 min challenged with 0.1 mL IBV (variant 2 isolate), G2: Injected with 0.5 mL salmonella-nonimmune lymphokines (S-NILK) intraperitoneally and after 30 min challenged with 0.1 mL IBV (variant 2 isolate), G3: Only injected with 0.5 mL S -ILK intraperitoneally without challenge with IBV, G4: Only challenged with 0.1 mL IBV (variant 2 isolate) and G5: Not injected and not challenged, considered a negative control group. Results: The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the antibody titer of all treated groups. G1 showed a moderately significant increase in the antibody titer and the number of RNA copies of IBV, as well as the lowest morbidity and mortality rates during the trial period. G4 , followed by G2, recorded a highly significant increase (p<0.05) in the antibody titer and number of RNA copies of IBV as well as high morbidity and mortality rates compared to G3 and G5, which did not record any result due to non-exposure to IBV. Conclusion: It is concluded that giving S-ILK at an early age enhances maternal immunity against IBV infection and prevents viral replication in the tracheal tissue after challenge with IBV (variant 2 isolate). We thus can save time, effort and resources in vaccination operations that do not provide absolute protection against IBV infections.
  Mushtaq T.B. AL-Zuhariy
  Objective: The current study aimed to increase the resistance of broiler chickens against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) type H5N8. Early infections with AIV are caused by weak immunity, whether maternal or acquired immunity from vaccinations and all the AIV vaccines are killed vaccines that provide absolute protection after three weeks of vaccination, which makes the chicks susceptible to infection at an early age. Our goal is to enhance the immune resistance against avian influenza at an early age by using immune lymphokines from hyperimmunized chickens with Salmonella enteriditis. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 250 broiler chicks divided into five groups, with 50 chicks per group. All groups were treated at the first day as follows: G1: injected with Salmonella-immune lymphokines (S-ILK) intraperitoneally after a 30 min intramuscular challenge with AIV (H5N8). G2: Salmonella-nonimmune lymphokines (S-NILK) were injected intraperitoneally after a 30 min intramuscular challenge with AIV (H5N8). G3: injected with S-ILK without a challenge with AIV (H5N8). G4: only challenged with AIV (H5N8) and considered a positive control group. G5: not treated and not challenged and considered a negative control group. Results: The results of the present study showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the antibody titre in all treated groups, except the G3 and G5 groups, which were not challenged. The G1 group recorded a moderate increase in antibodies with the lowest mortality rate, followed by the G2 group, compared to the G4 group, which recorded a 100% mortality rate on day 28 after challenge. The results of the viral load revealed the highest number of the influenza RNA copies in the G4 group compared with the G1 group, which recorded the lowest number of RNA copies that did not pose a serious risk to the lives of infected birds, followed by G2. Conclusion: Giving S-ILK at early ages increases the immune resistance against avian influenza (H5N8), which in turn compensates for live vaccines at early ages.
 
 
 
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