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Articles by Munir AHMAD
Total Records ( 4 ) for Munir AHMAD
  Munir Ahmad , Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem , Mushtaq Ahmad and Ali H. Sayyed
  To determine time trends in mortality for various insecticides, which are being used against cotton pests, the fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura was collected from Muzaffar Garh and tested for pyrethroids, organophosphate and new chemistry insecticides. The efficacy of the insecticides was examined by time-oriented mortality at LC50, through leaf-dip bioassays in the laboratory. In sodium channel agonists, endosulfan was the most efficient insecticide. The cholinesterase inhibitors tested, chlorpyrifos showed high efficiency while phoxim performed better in time-oriented mortality. Emamectin benzoate proved to be the most efficient insecticide in new chemistry insecticides tested. Spinosad and indoxacarb had almost similar LC50 and LT50 values. The least effective insecticide found was abamectin. The results are discussed in relation to Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
  Muhammad Rafay , Rashid Ahmad Khan , Shahid Yaqoob and Munir Ahmad
  A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the nutritional status of ten grass species from Cholistan desert. The evaluated species were: Aeluropus lagopoides, Cenchrus ciliaris, Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Lasiurus scindicus, Ochthochloa compressa, Panicum antidotale, Panicum turgidum, Pennisetum divisum, Sporobolus iocladus and Stipagrostis plumosa. Proximate analysis showed that the investigated grasses have deficient levels of crude protein and ether extract to meet the requirements of ruminants being reared there but have sufficient supplies of dry matter, crude fiber and ash. However, fiber analysis reflected that all the ten investigated grasses have high levels of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemi-cellulose and lignin.
  Muhammad Abdullah , Rashid Ahmad Khan , Shahid Yaqoob and Munir Ahmad
  The Cholistan rangelands were observed to be degrading due to various stresses, whose effects could be seen as poor livestock production. Hence a preliminary survey was conducted in order to assess the nutrients concentration of major browses used as feed during the period of whole year for livestock grazing therein. The browse species were evaluated by their mineral composition including the macro minerals (P, K, Na, Ca and Mg) and micro minerals (Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe). The investigated species were consisting of Calligonum polygonoides, Suaeda fruticosa, Salsola baryosma, Haloxylon recurvum, Haloxylon salicornicum, Capparis decidua, Calotropis procera, Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis cineraria and Acacia nilotica. The browse samples were collected based on preferences by grazing animals, accessibility to browsing and abundance in the said area. The results of this study indicated that the concentration of almost all the minerals (micro and macro) except Na among selected browses was less than required level for ruminants grazing therein. This may be, one of the causes responsible for the pitiable health and productivity of livestock in Cholistan rangelands. The low quality forages require the attention of range manger to improve the habitat conditions and livestock breeds. It was proposed that fertilization of soil and vegetation with additional sources will not only improve the over all vegetation but also enhance the productivity of grazing animals and other wildlife. These rangelands have potential for improvement provided proper ecological management practices and with participation of local community.
  Fatma HUSSAIN , Mohammad ARIF and Munir AHMAD
  Aim: To determine the plasma prevalence and characteristics of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among Pakistani diabetic patients in the Faisalabad region. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. People with DR are 25 times more likely to become blind than nondiabetics. Materials and methods: The incidence of retinopathy was determined in 1524 people with diabetes during April 2008 and January 2009. Physician-diagnosed diabetic patients underwent an eye examination by ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. Participants were also interviewed and examined in order to determine demographic characteristics and medical history. Results: Of the 1524 patients screened, 183 (12%) had DR. Of these, 7% (106) had nonproliferative DR and 5% (77) had proliferative DR. Clinically significant macular edema was detected in 1.2% of patients. The prevalence of DR was higher in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 diabetes. This difference was found to be statistically insignificant, however (P > 0.05). About 3% of the diabetic patients in our study had a family history of diabetes and only 6% had a history of regular eye examinations. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of DR in Faisalabad. An organized approach is needed to ensure adequate prevention and treatment in patients with diabetes.
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