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Articles by Mulatu Wakjira
Total Records ( 5 ) for Mulatu Wakjira
  Mulatu Wakjira , Gezahegn Berecha and Befekadu Bulti
  The current study was conducted to test the inhibitory potential of aqueous extracts and dry shoot residues of four multipurpose tree species (Albizia gummifera, Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach and Sesbania sesban) on seed germination and seedling growth of an invasive alien weed Parthenium hysterophorus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Leaf aqueous extracts and dry residues of all the multi-purpose tree species drastically inhibited germination and seedling growth of parthenium. Parthenium radicle was more inhibited than plumule in Petri dishes. Inhibitory effects increased with increasing aqueous extract concentration and residue amount. Soil surface-placed leaf residues exerted strong reduction on germination and growth of parthenium than soil-incorporated residues. In contrast to the higher inhibitory effects in Petri dishes, lower inhibitory effects were observed by the aqueous extracts of the multi-purpose tree species in pot-culture. Therefore, further investigations will be required under greenhouse and field conditions for pragmatic recommendation of species selection in the frame of multi-purpose tree species-mediated ecological management of parthenium weed.
  Gezahegn Berecha , Fikre Lemessa and Mulatu Wakjira
  The current study was designed to evaluate (1) the feasibility of replacing commercial growing media with the different rates (0, 10, 50%) of coffee pulp compost on the height and above ground biomass of tomato in greenhouse bioassay and (2) the effect of top soil amendment with different rates (1, 5, 10% v/v) of coffee pulp composted with grass (CPCG) on the plant biomass of tomato in lath-house. Our results demonstrated that substitution of pro-mix by 10% coffee pulp compost significantly increased aerial biomass, seedling height and number of nodes per plant. Substitution of pro-mix with 10 and 50% coffee pulp compost increased seedling height by 20 and 4%, respectively, compared to pure pro-mix media. Unamended peat moss and peat moss substituted with lower rate (10%) of compost gave the lowest result in all response variables assessed. Top soil amended with 10% CPCG gave remarkably higher root fresh and dry weight and AGFW per pot compared with unamended top soil and top soil amended with 1% CPCG. In conclusion, substitution of Pro-mix media with coffee pulp compost up to 50% and amendment of top soil with 5 and 10% CPCG were found to be a good option for greenhouse/nursery tomato seedling production and field production of tomato, respectively. Furthermore, the possibility of managing coffee byproducts by utilization is demonstrated. However, the effects of substituting commercial growing media with different rates of coffee pulp compost on other commercially important crops worth investigation.
  Fikre Lemessa and Mulatu Wakjira
  Weeds are important biotic constraints in agroecosystems that interfere with crop plants and consequently reduce yield and quality of crops. An estimated world-wide crop yield loss of about 43% was reported when weeds are left uncontrolled. Agricultural intensification since the 1940s mainly focused on heavy reliance on chemical herbicides to control the weed problem. Nowadays, this is considered objectionable due to the potential negative impacts of herbicide compounds on food safety, non-target organisms, beneficial species, public health and the environment and development of herbicide resistant weeds. Therefore, systems-oriented approaches to weed management that make better use of alternative weed management tactics which are compatible with a specific production system need to be developed. One of such approaches is the use of plants with strong weed-suppressing ability as a component of integrated crop management. Cover crops are well-suited in such holistic approach as they provide many other agroecosystem services besides suppressing weeds. Living cover crops suppress the development of weed populations through niche pre-emption. Moreover, cover crop residues suppress or retard weed emergence and growth due to both allelopathic and physical effects. In this study, major mechanisms were reviewed through which cover crops serve as ecological weed management.
  Fikre Lemessa , Waktole Sori and Mulatu Wakjira
  Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics is usually limited by damage due to Angular Leaf Spot (ALS) caused by Phaeoisariopsis grisola. Field experiments were conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007 at Jimma, Ethiopia, to determine the amount of yield loss due to ALS and to investigate the relationship between ALS and bean yield. Different levels of disease severity were created on two common bean varieties (GLPX-92 and ICA15541) using natural epidemics by spraying the fungicide benomyl at 7-14- 21 and 28-day intervals and by seed dressing. Generally, all fungicide sprays significantly reduced ALS severity and increased yield and seed weight but seed dressing did not affect significantly. The relative yield and seed weight losses to ALS ranged from 2 to 47 and 15 to 33%, respectively. Single-point regression models predicted that for each per cent increase in ALS severity, there was a seed yield loss of 18 to 124.5 kg ha-1 in GLPX and 12.9 to 103.9 kg ha-1 for ICA15541 and 100-seed weight loss per sample of 100 seeds of 10 to 13 g for GLPX-92 and 13 to 22 mg for ICA15541. The study suggests that fungicide sprays affect ALS epidemics and influence the amount of loss in yield attributable to ALS permitting the crop to reach physiological maturity without being under severe infection. Thus fungicide sprays can be used as a means to reduce ALS severity and increase common bean yield.
  Derib Alemu , Fikre Lemessa , Mulatu Wakjira and Gezahegn Berecha
  Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most widely grown vegetables in the world including Ethiopia. However, its production is constrained by different abiotic and biotic factors. Among biotic factors, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important pathogens, threatening the production of tomato and potato in Ethiopia. So far there is no single means that would totally manage the disease and provide an absolute cure or fully protect host plants against the pathogen. Hence it is important to look for alternative mechanisms of disease management that can be used as an integrated disease management scheme. This study was, therefore, initiated with the objectives of evaluating the antibacterial activities of aqueous and solvent (acetone and methanol) extracts of five invasive alien species (Eichhorina crassipes, Mimosa diplotricha, Lantana camara and Prosopis juliflora) against R. solanacearum. In vitro antibacterial test was carried out in disc diffusion sensitivity test in a completely randomized design with three replications. It is evident from the result that most of the plant extracts exhibited significant inhibition of the bacterial growth compared with the control. Aqueous extract of E. crassipes provided the highest inhibition zone (26 mm), followed by M. diplotricha (14 mm). After in vitro screening, four promising invasive alien species extracts (aqueous extracts of E. crassipes, M. diplotricha, L. camara and methanolic extract of P. juliflora) with inhibition diameter>10 mm were selected and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was assessed in vitro. They were also evaluated on tomato plants by applying the botanicals at three time of application (at the time of inoculation and 2-days before and after inoculation). The result of current study revealed that most of the treatment combinations significantly reduced percent disease severity index, but the inhibitory activities of tested plant species were reliant on type of plant species and their application time. More than 91% reduction in percent severity index of bacterial wilt was observed in tomato plants treated with leaf extract of E. crassipes when it was applied at a time of inoculation. The result suggested a need to continue research on invasive alien species extracts and determine their active principles to develop environmentally friendly management approach against bacterial wilt of tomato.
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