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Articles by Mukesh Kumar Chaubey
Total Records ( 4 ) for Mukesh Kumar Chaubey
  Mukesh Kumar Chaubey
  In the present study, combinatorial action of essential oils towards a serious insect pest of pulses, Callosobruchus chinensis has been investigated. Essential oils were isolated from dried fruits of Trachyspermum ammi, Anethum graveolens and Nigella sativa by hydrodistillation and its insecticidal and oviposition inhibitory activities were determined by fumigating adults of the C. chinensis with different balanced combinations of essential oils. Mortality in adults was observed in concentration dependent manner when fumigated with different combinations of different essential oil combinations. The 24-h LC50 (Median lethal concentration) values for combinations of T. ammi and A. graveolens; A. graveolens and N. sativa and N. sativa and T. ammi and essential oils were 11.6, 8.7 and 11.2 μL, respectively. Fumigation with sublethal concentrations of T. ammi A. graveolens; A. graveolens and N. sativa and N. sativa and T. ammi essential oil combinations significantly reduced the oviposition potential of the C. chinensis in comparison to the control group. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that combinations of essential oils shows synergism and give desired toxicity even at lower concentration than used alone.
  Mukesh Kumar Chaubey
  Phytoecdysteroids are analogues of insect moulting steroid hormone, ecdysteroid. These are found in different plant groups and provide protection by deterring insects. Phytoecdysteroids have been synthesized in at least 27 families of Pteridophyta, 10 families of Gymnospermae and 74 families of Angiospermae. Chemically, phytoecdysteroids are triterpenoids, the group of compounds that includes triterpene saponins, phytosterols and phytoecdysteroids. These are polar steroids with sugar-like solubility properties. Over 300 phytoecdysteroids analogues have been identified so far and it has been speculated that there are over 1,000 possible structures in nature. These are synthesized from mevalonic acid and cholesterol. Phytoecdysteroids occur in relatively high concentration in many plants and comprise 0.001-3% of the dry weight. These have been isolated from all parts of plants in much higher amounts than those present in insects. Thus, plants are far better sources of ecdysteroids than insects. Different plant parts contain different amounts of ecdysteroids and that ecdysteroid concentration varies with season and geographical distribution of the plant. Ecdysteroids control insect development at all stages of the life cycle. Disruption of normal ecdysteroid level severely impairs insect development. Phytoecdysteroids mimic the insect ecdysteroid by binding to its receptors and eliciting a cascade of effects in insects. Phytoecdysteroids provide protection to plants by altering the normal levels of ecdysteroid hormone in adults and larvae in insects. Therefore, phytoecdysteroids can be an excellent replacement of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management programme.
  Mukesh Kumar Chaubey
  Inspite of the extensive researches regarding the pharmacological consequences of scorpion envenomation, toxic effect of Asian black scorpion, Heterometrus fastigiousus (H. fastigiousus) Couzijn (Family: Scorpionidae) venom and mechanism by which envenomation exerts its effects in the victim have not yet been clearly known. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of H. fastigiousus venom in albino mice in order to understand the mechanism of toxicity. Venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. Effects on different biomolecules and enzymes in blood serum of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sub-lethal doses of H. fastigiousus venom. Student’s t-test and F-test was used for analysis of data. The LD50 of H. fastigiousus venom was 18.6 mg kg–1 b.wt. Increased levels of serum glucose, pyruvic acid, lactic acid and creatinine were observed after H. fastigiousus envenomation. Elevated levels of circulating lactic dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were observed. Decrease in glycogen content was observed in the liver and gastrocnemius muscle tissue after experimental envenomation with sub-lethal doses of H. fastigiousus venom. This study helps to understand the mechanism of toxicity of Asian black scorpion, H. fastigiousus venom. This will help the pharmacologists to design drugs for the treatment of accidental H. fastigiousus envenomation.
  Mukesh Kumar Chaubey
  Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 μL cm-3 for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 μL cm-2 for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.
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