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Articles by Muhammad Shafiq
Total Records ( 4 ) for Muhammad Shafiq
  Aqila Shaheen , Muhammad Azhar Naeem , Ghulam Jilani and Muhammad Shafiq
  Cultivated lands in erosion prone agro-ecologies incessantly experience a substantial loss of productive soil and organic matter. Currently, the fertility-management and rainwater-conservation practices are given emphasis separately. This study appraised collectively both the water-conservation and fertility-management practices for the restoration of soil productivity in eroded farmlands. Field experiments were carried out on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in eight farmer fields. Four fields of Missa soil series (Typic Ustochrept) and four of Rajar soil series (Typic Ustorthent) were selected. Treatments in each field were: farmers' practice as control without soil-water conservation, and with farmers' rate of fertilizer (per hectare 40 kg N + 30 kg P2O5); improved fertilization (per hectare 100 kg N, 60 kg P2O5, 2 kg Zn, and 1 kg B) without soil-water-conservation practices; soil-water-conservation practices (deep plowing, bund improvement, ploughing across the contour) + farmers' rate of fertilizers; and soil-water conservation + improved fertilization. Crop grain yields were at the highest with soil-water conservation + improved fertilization (per hectare wheat 3.31 Mg and 1.65 Mg in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006; and maize 4.55 Mg and 4.19 Mg in 2005 and 2006, respectively). The lowest yields were recorded under farmers' practice for both crops. Similar was the response for water-use efficiency and plant uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, and boron. Missa soil series was more responsive than was Rajar to integrated soil-management practices. Synergistic application of soil-water conservation and improved fertilization practices significantly improved the crop yields, nutrient uptake, and water-use efficiency.
  Muhammad Shafiq , Iqbal Hassan and Zahid Hussain
  Field experiment on summer maize was conducted in farmer's field at Mardan. The experimental area was sandy clay loam in texture with variable soil salinity and sodicity level. Maize crop was sown with furrow-bed and basin irrigation method. The regression models for total biomass and grain yield with soil salinity and sodicity gave better R2 values under furrow-bed than basin irrigation method. There was about 24, 45 and 68 % increase in total fresh biomass, dry straw and grain yield under furrow-bed system from that of basin irrigation method, respectively. The water use efficiency of 3.15 and 6.57 kg ha-1 m m-1 was achieved in basin and furrow-bed irrigation, respectively.
  Muhammad Shafiq , Iqbal Hassan and Zahid Hussain
  Agricultural production in Pakistan on one hand is constrained by scare water availability, soil salinity/sodicity and waterlogging problems on the other hand irrigation application losses on the field are around 25-40%. To evaluate two planting methods (basin and furrow-bed) studies on the same fields were conducted for three consecutive years (1999-2001) adopting two planting methods (basin and furrow-bed). The results indicated that under furrow-bed on the average, there was 29% less, irrigation depths with 42% greater grain yield compared to basin. The water use efficiency (WUE) was 68% greater with 35% less weed infestation under furrow-bed compared to basin. Generally, for maize greater benefits of raised beds can be achieved on problematic soils especially during seasons with high/concentrated rainfalls.
  Muhammad Shafiq , Iqbal Hassan , Shahid Ahmad and Zahid Hussain
  It was observed that about 75 percent grid points showed gradual increasing trend in pH with depth. The difference in pH of 0-15 cm and 60-90 cm layers ranged from 0.04 to 1.36 units with an average value of 0.56 units. Soil salinity (EC) depicted mainly mixed trend. It was further observed that 18.3 percent area possesses pH greater than critical level (8.5) in surface layer. Proportions of problematic area increased in sub-surface layers. There was quite variation in yield and yield components. Patchy sodicity problem reduced productivity of the study site by about 15 percent.
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