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Articles by Muhammad Sadiq
Total Records ( 2 ) for Muhammad Sadiq
  Muhammad Sadiq , C.C. Tscherning and Zulfiqar Ahmad
  This study describes a methodology of recovery of the Earth’s gravity field from CHAMP and GRACE satellites data in Pakistan using least squares collocation (LSC) based downward continuation technique. The CHAMP height anomalies and GRACE gravity disturbances derived from the observed satellite data have been used in combination solution using LSC with observed gravity values at the Earth surface. The combined covariance functions of height anomalies and/or gravity disturbances at satellite altitudes and observed gravity anomalies at Earth surface have been used as the basis for combination and downward continuation solution. The variance of predicted gravity anomalies from GRACE gravity disturbances is relatively lower than the corresponding results of gravity anomalies from CHAMP height anomalies. This fact may be attributed partly to the amplification of noise and partly to the unstable inverse transformation process of height anomalies to gravity anomalies. The impact of data error variance has been studied in the context of smoothing and noise reduction in the final solution of downward continuation using least squares collocation. The raising of data error suppresses the noise and as a result a smooth final solution is obtained. The prediction results appear to be dependent on the quality of data and goodness of combined covariance function, which are fairly comparable for the CHAMP and GRACE data. The recovered gravity field from satellite data appears to contribute mainly to medium and long wavelength parts of total gravity field spectrum. Due to flexibility of data handling in least squares collocation, this procedure is applicable to any observable of gravity field being at different altitudes and with different data spacing.
  Syed Sarfraz Hussain , Faqir Muhammad Azhar and Muhammad Sadiq
  The correlation coefficient analysis showed that all the characters observed in this experiment have positive correlation with yield of seed cotton per plant. As regards the significance of correlation, these differ in respect as number of bolls per plant and average boll weight are highly significant while staple length has significant correlation and seed inde, lint index and ginning outturn are non significant. The value of coefficients of determination revealed that larger proportion of probability in yield was accounted for number of bolls per plant.
 
 
 
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