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Articles by Muhammad Rizwan
Total Records ( 3 ) for Muhammad Rizwan
  Habib Ahmed Rathore , Tariq Masud , Ahmad Raza and Muhammad Rizwan
  Potential techniques of Interactive Packaging in Cardboard Carton (IPCC) had significant effect (p<0.05) effect on overall quality characteristics such as Reducing Sugar (RS), Total Inert Sugar (TIS), Sucrose (SUC), Total Sugar (TS), Sugar Acid Ratio (SAR), Skin Colour (SKC), Flesh Colour (FLC), Texture (TEX), Taste (TAS) and Flavour (FLA) of Chaunsa white variety of Mango at ambient temperature (28-33oC and 56.7-69.7% relative humidity) during storage. It was determined that using of potential techniques of coating emulsions having fungicide, ethylene absorbent and anti-ripening agent for (IPCC) technology showed higher contents of RS ranged from (10.14-11.58%), lower TIS (20.05-24.58%, except carton having 29.58%), SUC (9.19-18.34%), TS (19.57-22.53%) and SAR (22.63-86.27) with an average mean of 10.73%, 24.12%, 13.68%, 24.75% and 46.10 respectively. Whereas, the higher scores of organoleptic characteristics such as SKC score ranged from (4.09-5.01), FLC (4.01-5.02), TEX (4.48-5.27), TAS (3.81-5.20) and FLA (4.05-4.69) with an average mean of 4.53, 4.47, 5.03, 4.48 and 4.38 score respectively was observed in IPCC system up to end of storage. On the other hand the control sample (T1) comparatively had lower RS (9.66%), higher TIS (28.51%) except carton with highest percent (29.58%), highest SUC (19.83%), TS (29.38%), SAR (103.6), SKC score (5.82), FLC (4.55), TEX (4.98), TAS (4.67) and FLA score (4.81) respectively at earlier stage of storage. The present studies show that IPCC system having with other protective chemicals had a vital role in delaying the ripening process of mango fruit and extended storage life up to 25 days with minimum quality loss as compared to Control sample due to its unattractive skin, brown pulp color and poor taste was unacceptable after 12 days of their storage and had greater compositional changes with maximum quality loss during storage.
  Rajani Osti , Muhammad Rizwan , Abede Kidane Assefa , Deyi Zhou and Dinesh Bhattarai
  Objective: This study was carried out to assess the profitability and resource-use efficiency of rice production during monsoon and spring season in Chitwan district of Nepal in view to increase the rice production and food security. Methodology: Multistage sampling technique was followed to select a sample of 287 rice growing farmers selected randomly comprising 132 monsoon and 155 spring rice growers from the study area. The primary data collected through direct interviewing the sample farmers. The data was analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. Gross margin and cobb-douglas production function analysis were used to calculate the profitability and resource use efficiency, respectively in producing rice during two seasons. Results: The finding of this study revealed that rice production was more profitable during monsoon season. Cobb-douglas production function analysis showed that land, organic manure, potassium fertilizer and human labor, contributed significantly to the output of monsoon rice. Similarly, spring rice production was contributed significantly by land, seed, potassium fertilizer, human labor and irrigation. Rice growers of both seasons were in the second stage of the production function and were found inefficient in using the available resources. Organic manures, potassium fertilizer and human labor were over utilized and land was under-utilized in monsoon rice production. For spring rice, land and seed were under-utilized and potassium fertilizer, human labor and irrigation were over utilized. Conclusion: This study verified that appropriate adjustment is required for optimum allocation of resources that maximizes the revenue from the monsoon and spring rice production and also secures the domestic food supply.
  Sofia Tahir , Saba Siraj and Muhammad Rizwan
  In this research work, gold nanoparticles were synthesized by three different methods. These were, seed growth method, citrate-reduction method and gold nanoparticles prepared from sodium borohydride and refluxed with sodium acrylate. These nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometer, TEM and FESEM. In the seed growth method gold nanoparticles were synthesized by four steps of seeding growth with maximum plasmon bands at 524, 524, 530 and 539 nm as examined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The TEM micrograph showed that gold nanoparticles obtained from first step of seeding were spherical with 5-10 nm diameters. The second step nanoparticles were spherical and triangular with diameter of about 15-20 nm. Those obtained from third and fourth step of seeding were spherical with17-20 nm and 50-60 nm size, respectively. As the size of gold nanoparticles was increased from 5-60 nm, their SPR band was also increased from 524-539 nm. The citratestabilizedna noparticles were 15-17 nm in size with maximum plasmon band at 521 nm. The UV-visible spectra for the gold nanoparticles synthesized by sodium borohydride in 1,9-NDT showed the appearance of a second red-shifted plasmon resonance band at 950 nm wavelength. The intensity of this band was enhanced with increase in 1,9-NDT concentration.
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