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Articles by Muhammad Ridwan
Total Records ( 2 ) for Muhammad Ridwan
  Anwar Mallongi , Fadly Nur Rahman Umar , Atjo Wahyu , Muh. Saleh , Fatmawati , Abdul Muhith , Herawati , Muhammad Ridwan , A.L. Rantetampang and Yacob Ruru
  The amount of exhaust emissions resulting from the burning of motor vehicles caused the air in the city of Makassar to be polluted. This study aims to estimate the concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 10 years (2017-2027) on the main road of Makassar city. This research is an observational analytic research with dynamic system model approach. Results showed that in the next 10 years, the estimated total concentration of total Sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the first scenario without do nothing in 2017 of 6.44 μg/Nm3 increased by 2027 by 8,581 μg/Nm3 by multiples of increased concentration 61.58 times/month and an annual increase of 1.80 times/year whereas the estimated concentration of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the absence of control measures increased from 2017 by 4.99 μg/Nm3 increased by 2027 by 7,934 μg/Nm3 by multiples of increased concentration 37.6 times/month. Application of Second Scenario (2) has decreased total concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) when compared to total concentration in first scenario (I). Increasing the concentration of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) in 2017 by 6.44 μg/Nm increased by 2027 by 3785 μg/Nm3 with total monthly concentration increase of 37.4 times/months and total annual concentration increase of 0.72 times/year. Effectiveness in the second scenario in reducing the concentration of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by 22.72%. Application of the third scenario (3) there is a significant decrease in the concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide when compared to the first scenario (1). Effectiveness in the third scenario (3) in reducing sulfur dioxide concentration of 66.43%. Implementation of the fourth scenario (4) passenger shift for the use of bus rapid transportation (bus rapid transportation) with the aim of decreasing the volume of vehicles operating on the main road, if it is assumed that 50% of passengers switch to BRT bus, BRT passengers in 2027 will be 3960/days.
  Ahwiyah Ekawaty Said , Jumardi , Andi Dirham Nasruddin , Muhammad Ridwan , Muhammad Mewar , Nurias and Andi Nasruddin
  Background and objective: Crotonothrips polyalthiae Mound and Nasruddin (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is a new but increasingly important pest of asoka tree in Indonesia. Nursery managements rely heavily on insecticides to control the insect, though no information available on the effective insecticides against the pest. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to determine the baseline toxicity and efficacy of 12 insecticides belonging to 8 IRAC’s modes of action on C. polyalthiae in laboratory. Methodology: The C. polyalthiae individuals were collected from active leaf galls of mature ashoka trees that had never been exposed to insecticides. Twelve insecticides belonging to 8 IRAC modes of action (Imidacloprid, abamectin, diafenthiuron, λ-cyholothrin, spinosad, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, deltamethrin, profenofos, permethrin, clofentezin and dicofol) were evaluated for their toxicity against the thrips. Each insecticide was diluted in distilled water with 6 concentrations, including the control. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications. Leaf-dip method was used in the toxicity assay. Results: In general, the insecticides were more toxic against the adults than the larvae of C. polyalthiae. The LC50 values for the adults and the larvae ranged from 19.80-356.97 ppm and from 28.00-415.0 ppm, respectively. Imidacloprid, abamectin, diafenthiuron and λ-cyhalothrin were the most toxic against the adults, while diafenthiuron, imidacloprid, spinosad, abamectin, λ-cyhalothrin, fipronil and chlorpyrifos were the most toxic to the larvae. The results were confirmed by the results of the efficacy test in which only the recommended concentrations were used. Conclusion: Eight out of 12 insecticides tested: Six insecticides recommended for use on thrips of other crops (deltamethrin, abamectin, imidacloprid, fipronil, diafenthiuron and spinosad) and 2 insecticides not recommended for thrips control (λ-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos) were effective against the thrips. The study results also presented baseline susceptibility of the insecticides tested and the data could be used as a reference in monitoring future resistance development in the pest.
 
 
 
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