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Articles by Muhammad Riaz
Total Records ( 3 ) for Muhammad Riaz
  Ishaq A. Mian , Muhammad Riaz and Malcolm S. Cresser
  Changes in nitrification rates of an acid grassland soil with and without air drying have been monitored over 9 days, after first flushing native nitrate from the soils with deionised water. The results confirmed that full re-establishment of nitrification after air drying takes several days, supporting the hypothesis that any immediate first flush of nitrate from air-dried soils originates from cell lysis or flushing of ‘stored’ nitrate. Ammonium spiking confirmed that nitrification was not ammonium substrate limited. It was also found that ammonium accumulates in the soil during the drying process, providing a substrate pool once the population of nitrifiers has re-established. Over the first week of incubation, nitrate immobilisation was less conspicuous in the soil that had been rewetted after air drying compared with the incubated field moist soil.
  Muhammad Riaz , Ishaq A. Mian and Malcolm S. Cresser
  It is hypothesised that NH -N is more mobile in soils than often thought. However, because litter layers and live vegetation can modify N species transformation in soils, intact microcosms were employed to investigate NH -N, NO -N and total dissolved inorganic N (DIN) leaching in soils from across an unfertilised and N-impacted grassland in York, UK. Simulated rain of diverse compositions was applied to five intact core microcosms, and leachate samples were collected at regular intervals. Leaching with simple simulated rain, consisting of appropriately dilute NaCl solution, showed that broadly comparable NH -N and NO -N leaching would occur from freely draining profiles. Profiles of heavy textured soils result in marginal DIN losses, primarily as NH -N because of denitrification, but possibly substantial losses as NH -N via overland flow during heavy precipitation. Further sequential leaching experiments on freely draining profiles with rain containing supplementary NH -N showed enhanced NH -N and NO -N leaching in two of three pairs of microcosms. However, one profile showed consistently lower NH -N leaching associated with the development of a consistently higher nitrification rate. The marked difference between profiles was thought to be due to the presence of a more distinct surface litter layer in one profile, compared with observable litter incorporation into subsoils for other profiles. Effects on mineral N species mobilities of drying and rewetting were also assessed. This confirmed that a delay of several days is required to re-establish the microbial population and its activities. Final phases, in which NO -N and then NH4NO3 were added via the rain, confirmed the mobility of N pollutant inputs through the freely draining soils.
  Mirza Hassan , Naveed Akhtar , Muhammad Riaz and Akhter Ali
  The farmers of the rainfed areas are usually reluctant to use the recommended dose of fertilizers. This study was undertaken on the farmers field as adaptive research trials with the idea, whether the economic risk which is the main hindrance in adapting the recommended dose of fertilizers, is possible to be minimized by using its smaller doses. Fertilizers doses significantly affected biological, bhoosa yield and grain yield kg ha–1. Highest bundle weight and bhoosa kg ha–1 were recorded with the application of 2.5 bag of each Urea and DAP ha–1 and also with the application of 1.25 bag Urea and 2.5 bag DAP ha–1. Maximum grain yield of (2405-2500 kg ha–1) were obtained in T1, T2 and T3 respectively.
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