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Articles by Muhammad Nadeem
Total Records ( 3 ) for Muhammad Nadeem
  Muhammad Nadeem , Arshad Javid , Muhammad Abdullah , Atta Muhammad Arif and Tariq Mahmood
  The main objective of this study was to improve the nutritional value of butter milk by blending with dry leaves of Moringa oleifera that can be used to prevent and correct malnutrition in women and children of this poor nation. Dry leaves of Moringa oleifera was incorporated into butter milk at three different concentrations i.e. 1% addition (T1), 2% addition (T2) and 3% addition (T3). All these treatments were compared with a control T0 without any addition of dry leaves of Moringa oleifera (100% butter milk). Addition of dry leaves of Moringa oleifera at all levels did not have any negative effect on pH and acidity of the fortified butter milk. Protein and ash content increased from 3.41-4.09% and 0.75-1.13% which was 20 and 50% respectively at T3 level. Iron and calcium content of the fortified butter milk increased from 0.03-6.77 and 117.22-174.34 mg/100 grams in T3. Vitamin C, B1, B2 and B3 increased by 168, 233, 393 and 624% respectively as compared to control. Addition of dry leaves of Moringa oleifera at T2 level did not have any significant effect on color, taste and overall acceptability scores. The overall acceptability score of T3 was 6.7 out of 9 which was more than 74%. It was concluded that dry leaves of Moringa oleifera can be used at T3 level (3% addition) to formulate fortified butter milk with increased health benefits and acceptable sensory attributes.
  Muhammad Nadeem , Muhammad Abdullah , Arshad Javid , Atta Muhammad Arif and Tariq Mahmood
  The main objective of this research work was to develop a functional fat from Butter Oil (BO) and Moringa oleifera Oil (MOO) blends by interesterification process. To prevent the separation of liquid and solid phase the blend was chemically interesterified. MOO was incorporated into BO at five different levels i.e. T1 (90% BO and 10% MOO) T2 (80% (BO) and 20% MOO) T3 (70% BO and 30% MOO) T4 (60% BO and 40% MOO) and T5 (50% BO and 50% MOO). All these treatments were compared with a control T0 which did not contain any addition of MOO (100% BO). Melting point of all the treatments along with control increased after interesterification. Melting point of T5 was 35.5°C with iodine value of 60.44 (g/100 grams). Cholesterol reduction with beta cylodextrin increased as the concentration of MOO increased in the blend. The cholesterol reduction in T1 and T5 was 87 and 94% respectively as compared to control 85%. Oxidative stability was significantly increased with increasing augmentation of MOO in the blend. After 5 days in oven at 63°C the peroxide value of T5 was 2.19 as compared to control 13.14 (M. Eq./kg). It can be concluded that MOO and BO can be used in the formulation of functional and shelf stable fat.
  Ammara Ainee , Sarfraz Hussain , Tusneem Kauser , Tahir Mahmood Qureshi , Muhammad Nadeem and Farhat Rashid
  Body mass index (BMI) of 149 male and female children, classified into three age groups (5-9, 10-14 and 15-18 years) having four different blood groups (A, B, AB and O), was estimated from different schools situated in Sargodha district. The highest BMI was found in boys of age 15-18 years, whereas the lowest BMI was observed in the students with 5-9 years age. Many male and female subjects from all age groups were found underweight but BMI values of group A and O subjects were found close to the normal values. Female subjects having AB blood group were found to have the highest BMI whereas subjects from blood group “A” exhibited the lowest BMI values. Female subjects with others two blood group (B and O) were found to have normal BMI values. Overall, the students of 5-18 years (male and female) belonging to different blood groups were found to have low BMI than the recommended values. It has been found that BMI of “O” subjects was better as compared to blood group A and B.
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