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Articles by Muhammad Ishtiaq
Total Records ( 3 ) for Muhammad Ishtiaq
  Rizwana Aleem Qureshi , Ijaz Ahmad and Muhammad Ishtiaq
  Tehsil Gujar Khan is a typical example of Potohar region characterized by the natural beauty and specific cultural heritage. Only one family represented Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms by three families and Angiosperms by 66 families (10 monocots and 56 dicots). About 271 plants were enlisted from the study area in which 206 species of plants (76.01%) are herbs, species are trees (16.60%) and about 20 species are shrubs (07.38%). As for as conservation status of plants species is concerned 8.12% are abundant, 4.65% common, 2.14% uncommon, .71 rare and 7.38% of species are very rare. The results of utilization of plants showed that some plants have multiple uses. Based on utility, there were 197 medicinal plants (72.69%), whereas 76 species (28.04%) served as fodder and forage for animals, 2 species (15.49%) were used as fuel wood, species (17.34%) served for attracting honey bees, 2 species (11.81%) were used as vegetables and pot herbs, species (12.91%) used for thatching, sheltering and roofing, 1 species (11.43%) were planted as ornamental, species (9.96%) used for making various agricultural appliances and ropes, 1 species (07.74%) were timber yielding, 0 species (7.38%) were used for fencing and hedges whereas 22 species (08.11%) each were serving for the Category of fruit yielding plants. Lastly 7 species (02.58%) were serving as a source of spices and condiments. The species within a stand were arranged on the basis of importance values and named after the three leading species with the highest importance value as dominant; the closely approaching species were considered as co-dominant and followed by associated and rare species on the basis of I.V. So following four communities were found namely, Acacia-Aristida -Gnaphalium community, Poa-Acacia-Cymbopogon Community, Inula-Tamarix-Chenopodium community and Acacia-Prosopis-Imperata Community.
  Syed Wajahat Hussain , Muhammad Ishtiaq and Syed Asghar Hussain
  Different bulb sizes and planting dates significantly affected onion leaf production. Small bulb sizes showed maximum sprouting (83.98%) and benefit ratio (0.98) as compared to 38.1% and loss ratio (-0.49) respectively for large bulbs. Number of leaves/plant (35.13) and marketable yield/ha (31.8 t) were significantly higher in medium size bulbs (4.5-5.5 cm diameter) as compared to number of leaves/plant (27.63) for small bulbs (3.5-4.5 cm diameter) and yield/ha (13.3 t) respectively for large bulbs (5.5-7.0 cm diameter). Planting on 21st July showed maximum number of leaves/plant (38.37) and days taken to uprooting (122.9) of green yield, while minimum number of leaves/plant (26.07) on 15th Sept. and days taken to uprooting (60.92) were recorded on 29th Sept. Maximum sprouting (78.70%) in total number of 45 bulbs/plot was observed by planting bulbs on 29th Sept., while less sprouting (43.14%) was found when the plantation was done on 21st July. Planting bulbs on 29th Sept. significantly enhanced the total marketable yield per ha (28.3 t) and benefit ratio (0.54). Plants obtained from small bulbs sown on 29th Sept. gave more profit and therefore is recommended for onion growers.
  Muhammad Ishtiaq , Wajahat Hanif , M.A. Khan , M. Ashraf and Ansar M. Butt
  Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems; Veronica anthelmintica for bandage of broken bones and Withania coagulans is used to treat small pox. Many wild plants are eaten green and raw as salad, or in boiled form of soup as blood and intestine cleansing tonics. Moreover, some plants are spiritually recorded as sacred and used as ritual plant for good omens or against the evil eye and removal of giant. About 95 species of 38 families were recorded to be important part of phyto heritage of folk pharmacopoeia of Samahni valley. Among most frequent used families are Papilionaceae 9.47%, Solanaceae and Poaceae 8.42% each, Cucurbitaceae 7.36% and Brassicaceae and Rosaceae 6.31% each. Among the surveyed families used to treat various diseases, Solanaceae is at first rank with 9.74%, Brassicaceae 8.23% and Cucurbitaceae 7.39% subsequently. Most commonly used families with highest percentage of plants used as food medicines are Solanaceae (11.37%), Brassicaceae (8.38%) and Papilionaceae (7.18%) respectively. Most frequent plant parts used are; roots, leaves, seeds and flowers while popular forms of plants uses are decoction, poultice, infusions, soups and raw form as salad. Importance of ethnobotanical inventory constructed from ethnomedicinal uses and folklore phytonims of flora in perspectives of initiative for future phytochemical and pharmacological research on these taxa to develop and discover of new drugs is present and discussed.
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