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Articles by Muhammad Iqbal
Total Records ( 17 ) for Muhammad Iqbal
  Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Ali Chang , Abid Mahmood , Mula Bux Khumber , Abdul Nasir and Mahmood-ul- Hassan
  To study inheritance of CLCuV, nine selected varieties/lines (four resistant five susceptible) of up land cotton (G. hirsutum L.) were used for five F1 combinations. The F1 was sown for raising F2 and back crossing purpose. Subsequently P1, P2 F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 population were established and to ensure the inoculation of CLCuV no pesticide was used to control insect population. The results indicated that duplicate dominant epistasis was involved in control of resistance of CLCuV. Virus resistance was controlled by two dominant duplicate genes as F2 ratio was modified to 15:I from 9:4:4:1 and the test cross ratio was modified to 3:1 instead of 1:1.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Ali Chang , Abid Mahmood , Muhammad Zafar Iqbal , Mahmood-ul- Hassan and Noor-ul- Islam
  The node above white flower (NAWF) technique was used to monitor the growth, development and maturity of ten cotton varieties viz. Reshmi, CIM-443, MNH-93, MNH-329, MNH-395, MNH-439, S-12, FH-900, CIM-1100 and NIAB-78 during the years 1997, 1998 and 1999. The NAWF counts were made at weekly intervals. By regressing NAWF means over time, the number of days to reach NAWF of 5.0 (NAWF-5) was determined. Days to NAWF-5 were highly correlated with percent first pick of seed cotton yield. It was observed that NIAB-78 and CIM-443 achieved NAWF-5 earlier by 109.86 and 109.09 days (average of three years). Days to NAWF-5 provided a focal point for all management decisions. Therefore, it became evident that NAWF technique could be used for monitoring cotton plant after flowering, earliness determination of variety/strain and detecting fruiting problems during growth season.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Nazia Nisar , Rao Sohail Ahmed Khan and Khezir Hayat
  The objective of this study was to observe water stress tolerance in cotton seeds, when mepiquat chloride is used as seed treatment. Increasing drought resistance of cotton seedlings by accelerating root growth is an important practical implication. The study was conducted on effects of mepiquat chloride (1, 1-dimetheyl peperidinum chloride) on drought resistance of cotton seedling. The cotton seeds were soaked for night in mepequat chloride solution i.e. 0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ml L- 1. Water stress was given after thirty days after sowing, for nine days and data were collected for root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight. Firstly, mepiquat chloride seed treated plants were well irrigated and subjected to severe stress. It indicated that petiol length and shoot length decreased, while root length, fresh weight and dry weight increased with high concentration of mepiquat chloride. Cotton seeds treated with high dose of mepiquat chloride may elongate the days taken to emerge first true leaves. With the withdrawal irrigation, mepiquat chloride treated seedlings at all concentration maintained higher root growth, shorter stem length more fresh and dry weight than non-treated seedlings.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Khezir Hayat and Noor-ul-Islam
  Mepiquat chloride (1-1-dimethyl-piperidinium chloride) as a plant growth regulator that can be used by producer to manage the crop development, uniformity and maturity. Field experiment was conducted during 2005-06 to evaluate the affect of plant spacing, Nitrogen fertilizer and mepiquat chloride application on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) var. MNH789. Three plants spacing (15, 23 and 30 cm), four nitrogen fertilizer level (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1) with two rates of Mepiquat chloride (2x100, 2x200 mL ha-1 ) were evaluated for seed cotton yield and yield components. Results showed that Plant Height (PH), Monopodial branches per plant (MB), Node of first fruiting branch (NFB), sympodial branches/plant (SB), No. of bolls/plant and seed cotton yield were different among plant spacing, nitrogen fertilizer while MB, NFB, SB and total main stem nodes/plant were not differed significantly among the Pix application. Whereas MB, B. wt was not affected significantly by the plant spacing, nitrogen fertilizer and pix application. Cotton grown in narrow plant spacing (15 and 23 cm) had higher seed cotton yield (4218 and 4171 kg ha-1) at high dose of fertilizer (150 kg ha-1) with low dose of pix (2x100 mL ha-1). This combination of treatment increased the total main stem nodes, SB and bolls/plant while the internodal length decreased. From present study it is concluded that high seed cotton yield can be achieved at low plant spacing, high nitrogen fertilizer with use of pix to manage the excessive plant growth.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Ali Chang , Muhammad Zafar Iqbal , Mahmood-ul- Hassan , Abdul Nasir and Noor-ul- Islam
  The present study was conducted on correlation and path coefficient analysis of earliness an agronomic characters of upland cotton. The results showed that node of first fruiting branch, number of monopodial and sympodial branches plant-1, number of flowers and number of bolls per plant-1, boll weight, fiber fineness (micronaire) value and fiber strength were positively and significantly correlated with yield in present material. Similarly path coefficient analysis revealed that number of sympodial branches and number of flowers plant-1, number of bolls plant-1 and boll weight had maximum direct positive effect on yield of seed cotton. Whereas, the traits number of monopodial branches plant-1, ginning out turn percentage (GOT%) and staple length had the direct negative effects on seed cotton yield plant-1. The results indicated that for evolving a superior genotype possessing all the three basic characteristics i.e. earliness, high yield and improved fiber quality of international standard, the breeder had to use the reciprocal recurrent selection method or modified back cross or three way cross within genetic material under study.
  Muhammad Iqbal , 1Muhammad Ali Chang , Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal , Mahmood-ul-Hassan , Abdul Karim and Saghir Ahmad
  Six upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) varieties were crossed in all possible combinations. The parents and F1 were sown in a replicated experiment. Hayman’s diallel cross analysis was employed to investigate the nature of gene action involved in the inheritance of number of sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, yield, ginning out turn %, staple length, fiber fineness and fiber strength. The diallel analysis revealed that all the characters were polygenically inherited and exhibited partial dominance with additive gene action. The estimation of component of variation for these characters suggested that the (D) additive component was significant in all the traits under study and was lower than dominant components (H1 and H2) of variation except for number of sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant and seed cotton yield per plant, where the dominant components were higher in magnitude than additive. The positive estimate of F indicated that dominant genes were in excess than recessive genes in the parents for all the traits except for ginning out turn percentage and fiber fineness. The ratio of H2/4H1 indicated largely asymmetry of positive and negative genes in parents for number of bolls per plant, seed cotton yield, staple length, fiber fineness and fiber strength, and symmetrical distribution of positive and negative genes in the parents was observed for number of sympodial branches per plant, boll weight and ginning out turn percentage. The h2 value for number of number of sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield per plant, ginning out turn, staple length, fiber fineness, and fiber strength was positive and significant which indicated that hetrotic breeding was rewarding for these traits. The correlation between Wr + Vr and Yi indicated that dominant genes are mainly responsible for the expression of all traits. Mass selection will be an effective method for improving the boll weight and reciprocal recurrent selection method will be helpful for improving the sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, seed cotton yield, fiber fineness and fiber strength. The full sib or half sib family selection, pedigree and progeny test would probably be necessary to achieve the genetic progress for GOT% and staple length.
  Muhammad Iqbal , K. Ahmed , I. Ahmad , M. Sadiq and M.Y. Ashraf
  The effect of water stress on yield and yield components of two durum wheat varieties was studied at various growth stages, i.e. at vegetative, flowering or grain-filling stage and no stress (control). The decrease in grain yield per plant was more pronounced (72.62 percent) associated with a reduced number of grains per ear (59.62 percent) and 1000-grain weight (31.98 percent) under water stress applied at flowering stage. Stress at grain-filling stage was less effective than at vegetative and flowering stage in both varieties. Variety D-88628 was less affected which showed its adaptability under water stress conditions.
  Iftikhar Ahmad , Naeem Iqbal , Muhammad Iqbal , Zahoor Aslam and Ejaz Rasul
  The studies were undertaken to investigate the response of rice cultivars under saline conditions. Salinity upto 10 dSm–1 did not affect germination percentage in all varieties but the same level of salinity significantly affected plant height, fresh as well as dry weight of root and shoot and total number of tillers per plant. Germination percentage was not affected in NR1 and NR6 even at 20 dSm–1 salinity level but BAS 370 was severely affected (70.00 percent) at this level of salinity. Regarding parameters studied, NR6 and IR6 showed adaptability under saline conditions.
  Numaira Kaleem , Muhammad Iqbal and Amer Jamil
  Antimicrobial agents were produced using specific strain of Bacillus subtilis by fermentation of molasses in medium containing MgSO4.7H2O, CuSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4 under semi-shake conditions at 37EC (pH 7.2). Alluding to the individual effect of the salts against E. coil the same conc. of MgSO4.7H2O, (0.05%) had similar impact both after 48 hrs and 72 hrs incubation, while for the other two salts lCuSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4), an increase in conc. concomitantly enhanced the antimicrobial activity only during delayed incubation. Similarly, against Streptococcus pyogenes, all the three salts had better results at delayed span of time (72 hrs). For dual salt combinations MgSO4.7H2O/CuSO4.7H2O and MgSO4.7H2O/KH2PO4 in relative conc. of 0.005/0.1 and 0.005/0.5 against S. pyogenes and MgSO4.7H2O/CuSO4 in conc. of 0.05/0.1 against E. coil yielded better effect after 72 hrs. incubation. In case of triple salt combinations too, 72 hrs incubation proved suitable for better yield of antimicrobial agents. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found at relative salt conc. of 0.005, 0.05 and 0.5% of MgSO4.7H2O, CuSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4 respectively. The extract did not show remarkable antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. No haemolytic activity of the broth extract was found against human erythrocytes.
  Ameer Khan , Muhammad Iqbal , Iftikhar Ahmad , Naeem Iqbal and Mumtaz Hussain
  A decreasing trend in head diameter, number of achenes per head, hundred achene weight and achene yield per plant to as observed as the level of water stress increased from 100 percent to 25 percent of field capacity. Seed oil content was very sensitive to even mild water stress but showed stability under increasing stress conditions. FH-1 responded better at high level of water stress in respect of all the parameters studied except for hundred achene weight, where FH-3 showed better response.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Ali Chang , Muhammad Zafar Iqbal and Muhammad -ul-Hassan
  Due to indeterminate growth habit of cotton plant (G. hirsutum L.) maturation is affected by many environmental and cultural factors. An easy and reliable measure of progression towards maturity that can be attained during crop development is needed for both production and research programme. The node above white flower (NAWF) technique was used to monitor the growth, development and maturity of three varieties viz; MNH552, MNH554 and AC-134 under five nitrogen level (N1=0, N2=75, N3=125, N4=175 and N5=250 kg ha-1). The objective of this study was to evaluate physiological cut out date (NAWF-5) as a measure of maturity by comparing it with percent first pick, days taken to first flower and days taken to open first boll and to evaluate the effect of nitrogen on maturity related traits and seed cotton yields. Within each test, sequential node above white flower counts were used to determine physiological cutout date (days taken to NAWF-5), percent first pick was determined by sequential harvest. The days taken to first flowers and days taken to open first boll were recorded from planting date to open first white flower and boll open. Significant variation was found within each nitrogen level for all of the maturity measurements and seed cotton yield except between N4 and N5. The days taken to NAWF-5 was closely related to percent first pick, days taken to first flower, days taken to open first boll and seed cotton yield. It was also concluded that excess of nitrogen application increase the potential for rank growth, risk of nitrogen losses through soil run-off or leaching. From the result of present study it was also indicated that application of nitrogen fertilizer above 175 kg ha-1 did not extend the flowering period and also did not increase seed cotton yield significantly. Days to NAWF-5 could be used for monitoring cotton plant after flowering, earliness determination, detecting fruiting problems during growth season and for all management decisions (Nitrogen fertilizer application etc).
  Muhammad Iqbal , M. Zaffar Iqbal , Rao Sohail A. Khan , Khezir Hayat and M. A. Chang
  Mepiquat chloride (1, 1-dimethyl-piperidinium chloride) as a plant growth regulator that can used by producer to manage the crop development, uniformity and maturity. Field experiments conducted during 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the fact of row spacing and Mepiquat chloride application on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) var. MNH-700. Four rates of Mepiquat chloride (4x123, 2x246, 4x246 and 4x370 mL ha-1) and a check with 0 mL ha-1 were evaluated for cotton growing in 25, 50 and 75 cm row spacing in 2002 and 2003. Plant height and number of total main stem nodes were different among row spacing and Mepiquat chloride application. The height was highest in plots where no application of Mepiquat chloride. Cotton grown in narrow row spacing (20 and 50 cm) had higher seed cotton yield than 75 cm row spacing, but reduce Ginning Out Turn (GOT) percentage in narrow row spacing negating any increase in seed cotton yield. In general reduced row spacing and Mepiquat chloride application did not lower fiber quality. In some cases, micronair was reduced in narrow row spacing (0.1), but values were in acceptable range for fiber traits. Mepiquat chloride is considered a desirable management tool to control crop growth. Ultra-narrow row spacing should practices only in the areas where plant growth is not accurate or upto the standard. In fertile soils, Mepiquat application is suggested for control of plant growth in efficient way under narrow row spacing in viewing the habit of cotton genotype.
  M.Aslam Chowdhry , Muhammad Iqbal , Ghulam Mahboob Subhani and Ihsan Khaliq
  Analysis of variance showed that the genotypic differences for these characters were highly significant. The phenomenon of heterosis and heterobeltiosis occurred in varying degrees in almost all crosses for the characters under study. Additive type of gene action and additive with the involvement of over-dominance type of gene action were present in almost all the traits. Inbreeding depression was exhibited to varying degree in almost all the crosses for yield and yield components.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal , Muhammad Ali Chang and Khezir Hayat
  Exploiting heterosis is one method to increase cotton yield that has stagnated in recent years. One primarily to difficulty of producing F1 seed, use of heterosis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using F2 hybrids by comparing them with parents, commercial variety and F1,S for yield, yield components and fiber quality. The second objective of this study was to determine if parental research organization of origin was related to mid parent and useful heterosis. The genetic design was a half diallel consisting of six parent (evolved by different research organization), 15 F1,s and 15 F2,s. The 36 genotypes were grown in 2002-2003. Yield, yield components fiber length, strength and micronaire reading were determined. The highest yielding parent was FH-901 (3517 kg ha-1) with good yield components (recommended commercial variety for general cultivation), while the variety Reshmi had best quality traits among these parents. The cross combinations MNH439 X CIM-448, FH-901 X CIM-448 and NIAB-78 xX CIM-448 showed minimum inbreeding depression (-34.6, -20.0 and -21.8%, respectively) for seed cotton yield. These crosses also showed less inbreeding depression for yield components and fiber traits than expected inbreeding depression i.e 50.0%. General combining ability mean squares were significant for all traits and specific combining ability mean squares were also significant for all traits except boll weight and fiber strength. The GCA effects were higher than SCA effects for all traits, which indicated that additive gene action is prevailing with dominant for expression of these traits. The variety CIM448 was the best general combiner for the yield and yield components.
  Ghulam Mustafa Cheema , Abida Nasreen and Muhammad Iqbal
  Parasitization rate by egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis, was observed on artificially released eggs of Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, under field conditions on different cotton varieties viz., CIM-473, CIM-497, CIM-446, CIM-499, S-12, MNH-552, NIAB-78, NIAB-Krishma, BH-118, FH-900 and FH-901. Highest rate of parasitism (28%) was found on BH-118. It was followed by NIAB-Krishma (26.33%), FH-901 (25.00%), FH-900 (23.67%) and CIM-473 (22.00%). On CIM-497 and NIAB-78, 18 and 12% parasitization was observed. Lowest rate of parasitism (4.67%) was observed on CIM-499 followed by S-12 (5.33%), CIM-446 (6.67%) and MNH-552 (7.67%).
  Abida Nasreen , Ghulam Mustafa , Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ashfaq
  Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to find out the most efficient method for harvesting the eggs of Chrysoperla carnea from the different substrates provided on the top of the adult rearing cage for egg laying purpose. Highest egg viability (82.89%) was found in the eggs removed by a razor from the granulated Maraco paper sheet used by AM-Tech rearing methodology whereas egg viability was lowest (64.89%) in the case of egg removed from black organdy with potassium hypochlorite solution. Modest egg viability (75.56%) was observed in the eggs laid on black organdy and removed by a razor.
  Muhammad Imran , Anwar-Ul-Hassan , Muhammad Iqbal and Ehsan Ullah
  Water is the most important factor for plant growth while potassium fertilization plays an important role under deficit irrigation or under stress condition. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the yield and water use efficiency with amelioration effect of potassium in wheat crop exposed to regulated deficit irrigation. Wheat crop was sown for two years. Pot experiment was laid out following CRD with two factorial arrangements. Each treatment was replicated thrice. Wheat variety “Sahar-2006” was sown. All the measures were taken to control weeds, other pests and diseases for the crop management. Soil water content was measured by weighing pot after 1 to 2 day’s interval throughout the growing season. Potential evapotranspiration was calculated using Penman-Montieth model. The ETa was calculated using water balance equation and crop coefficient was calculated from the lysimeter/pot trials. The data obtained was analyzed statistically. The result of this study showed that the maximum grain yield was observed with T1 (HHHHH) at K2 and second best was the T2 (MMMMM: 70-80% FC at all stages) at K2 because it showed minimum reduction in yield and save upto 20-30% water. It also showed the highest water use efficiency (WUE). It was also observed that the soil evaporation decreased with regulated deficit irrigation to some extent but it mostly depend upon on the hydraulic properties of soil. The treatment combination T3 (LLLLL: 60-70% FC at all growth satges) at K2 showed the highest root mass density and root length density during 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and potassium application have significant effect on crop coefficient (Kc) during 2010-11 and 2011-12 in Winter seasons.
 
 
 
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