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Articles by Muhammad Bilal
Total Records ( 2 ) for Muhammad Bilal
  Danial Hassani , Muhammad Khalid , Muhammad Bilal , Yi-Dong Zhang and Danfeng Huang
  RNA editing is an important process that deaminates specific cytidines (C) to uridines (U). Wide-ranging organisms, such as plants, viruses, and animals are receiving the advent of different kinds of RNA editing. Site recognition and enzymatic editing mechanism are two distinct processes of RNA editing machinery. Cis elements and trans-factors empower the site recognition in target RNA molecule. Most RNA editing events can reinstate the evolutionarily conserved amino acids in mRNAs or generate translation start/stop codons, thus an essential process to preserve genetic information at the RNA level. Regulating gene expression in mitochondria and chloroplast is mediated by a large family of Trans-factors RNA-binding proteins, known as pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. Notably, several critical molecular functionalities including, splicing, RNA processing, cleavage and translation are facilitated by these plant-specific PRP proteins. Functioning in synergy, these proteins has systematic effects on organelle biogenesis and therefore, on respiration, photosynthesis, plant development, and environmental responses. Mostly, PPR proteins are confined to mitochondria or chloroplasts, where they possess a unique role in RNA metabolism. It is worth to mention that correct RNA editing maintains the cell functionality and organism development and any imbalance in RNA editing machinery may provoke diseases and cancers. Recently, RNA editing has been recognized to be a potential target for therapeutic purposes and several reports targeting RNA editing for disease and cancer therapy have been documented. In this review, a comprehensive literature overview of the RNA editing, evolution and application of PPR proteins and RNA editing on gene expression, diseases, cancers and drugs has been provided.
  Muhammad Bilal , Tahir Rasheed , Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal , Hongbo Hu and Xuehong Zhang
  In recent years, the ever increasing scientific knowledge and research advancements in science have provided a great awareness regarding the use of nanoparticles (NPs). NPs have drawn the researcher’s interest to explore new dimensions in biotechnology at large and nanotechnology, in particular, to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and also to present other pharmacological potentialities. Finally, after decades of negligence, the AMR issue has now captured a worldwide attention of the global leaders, public health community, legalization authorities, academia, research-based organizations and medicinal sector of the modern world, alike. The antibiotics utilization has been expedited than ever before driven by increasing access, across the globe. The AMR emergence in microorganisms is considered as a natural phenomenon. However, this health-threatening issue has been driven by those mentioned above faulty human behavior. In this context, metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used or being engineered with unique potentialities for targetted applications in many fields of medical, engineering and science. Amongst noble metals, the superior attention has been given to silver nanoparticles. Traditionally, different chemical methods have been attempted but criticized due to various biological risks including toxicity that engendered a deep concern to develop some environmental-friendly processes. In this context, biological approaches using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts displayed superiority over chemical and biological methods. These plant-based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assemblage to maintain the suitable size of nanoparticles. This critical review mainly focuses on the utilization of vast diversity of plants in the bio-inspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles as well as their potential applications as novel antimicrobial agents.
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