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Articles by Muhammad Aslam
Total Records ( 25 ) for Muhammad Aslam
  Muhammad Misbah-ul-Haq , Muhammad Aslam and Syed Ahqabullah Kakakhel
  The impact of different genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus Linnaeus) were seen on some important insects like and green stink bug (Nezara viridula), aphid (Aphis gossypii) whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and their population was correlated with the yield. Viewing the results of green stink bug (Nezara viridula) it was found that 64 A 93 had significantly less mean population than HYSUN 33. Whereas SUPER 25, CRN 1435 and 65 A 24 were found to be partially susceptible. The genotypes 6451, SMH 9707, PARSUN I and SMH 9706 were found to be susceptible because they all had almost similar mean population as HYSUN 33. All other genotypes found to be highly susceptible. In case of aphid (Aphis gossypii) it was found that 64 A 93 was resistant because it had significantly less number of population than standard cultivar. Whereas SUPER 25, CRN 1435 were found to be partially resistant because they had less significant difference as compared to 64 A 93, 65 A 24, 6451 and SMH 9707 were found to be intermediately susceptible, whereas PARSUN I and SMH 9706 were susceptible and they were found to be similar to HYSUN 33. Other varieties found to be highly susceptible. The results for whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) revealed that the genotype 64 A 93, SUPER 25 and CRN 1435 were found to resistant, whereas 65 A 24 found to be intermediately susceptible. The genotypes SMH 9707 PARSUN I and SMH 9706 were found to be susceptible. Other varieties including SF 187, S-278, DK 3915, SH 3322, SS 2, SS 1 and SF 177 found to be highly susceptible when they were compared with standard genotype i.e. Hysun 33. Correlation was found to be negative for all the above insect pests i.e. as population increased the yield decreased as a result.
  Muhammad Aslam and Muhammad Hammad Nadeem Tahir
  Ten inbred lines of maize viz. MO-17, DK-656, IZI-7103, SYP-31, AYP-17, H-93, B-73, A-660, IZI-4001 and KU-2301 were evaluated under drought stress for different morpho-physiological traits. These traits included yield per plant, seedling survival rate at Treat I, II, III, IV, leaf venation, stomatal frequency, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis, photosynthetically active radiations, hydrophilic colloids, relative water contents, root/shoot ratio and water potential. The experiment was laid out following a randomized complete block design with three replications. The inbred lines were highly significantly different for all the characters studied except net photosynthesis. Maximum variability was observed for net photosynthesis followed by root/shoot ratio. The inbred lines H-93 and IZI-4001 performed best for most of the traits and these could be used in breeding programmes for drought tolerance in maize.
  Atta Ullah , Abdul Basit , Muhammad Aslam and Naeem Khan
  Power quality and the dynamic performance of the distribution system in Pakistan is poor because of weak and out-of-date system. It is unable to deliver the required reactive power in case of various system disturbances. Distribution Static compensator (DSTATCOM) is an important compensator which is able to enhance the power quality and dynamic performance of the distribution system. In order to improve power quality and dynamics performance of the distribution system effectively a more robust and optimal control algorithm is required for D-STATCOM. Hence, in this research work an improved and optimal control algorithm have been designed for D-STATCOM. In improved control scheme SRF theory control is used for the reference current generation. For the generation of gat pulses for VSC of D-STATCOM level shifted PWM scheme have been used because it offers very good performance for reduction of harmonics distortion. The designed device is implemented in MATLAB-Simulink and is capable to deliver good reactive power compensation under various loading environments such as inductive load, capacitive load and under abnormal faults conditions.
  Abdul Qayyum Mohsin , Muhammad Aslam and Faiza Bashir
  The present study had evaluated the social and economic factors responsible for low literacy in Pakistan. Among others, major cause of school dropouts at secondary level was weak primary education system, non availability of trained teachers, parent teacher relafter the completion of secondary level
  Muhammad Aslam
  To determine the pest status of Callosobruchus chinensis Linnaeus (CCL) (Coleoptera:Bruchidae) on chickpea, samples of chickpea were collected from different sources (the farmers, the villagers and general public homes). From each area/location three points were selected to collect the samples with the help of probe. From each collected sample 100 grains were examined. While collecting the samples, the temperature and humidity of the site from where the samples were collected were recorded with the help of portable thermohygrometer. Based on the samples collected, the percent infestation to the chickpea by this pest recorded was 12.18 with standard deviation of 05.42. Based upon the percent infestation, the insect was declared as major pest of chickpea, as it caused more than 10% damage to chickpea. Moreover, it was also concluded from the discussion that the damaged grains did not remain fit for human as well as animal consumption due to the bad smell created by the attack of the pest.
  Malik Arshad Ayyaz , Muhammad Aslam , F.A. Shaheen , I. Abbas and R. Hussain
  The efficacy of Taramira (Brassica juncea) oil, leaf powder and seed powder was tested against chickpea beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) attacking stored chickpeas (Cicer arietinum). The taramira oil was applied at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/40 g of chickpea grains. Similar concentrations were applied in case of taramira leaf and seed powder. Observations were taken on the number of holes per grain of chickpea made by C. chinensis, number of eggs laid per grain, adult emergence from 10 egg laid grains and percent weight loss. It was concluded that the effect of taramira oil was significantly different from the control at all the concentrations applied. Best results were obtained by 1.0 mL of oil/40 g of chickpea grains. The 0.5 and 0.25 mL/40 g of grains also gave good results. Insect control was moderate at 0.125 mL/40 g of grains. Similar results were observed from leaf and seed powder. From the results it could be concluded that taramira could play an important role in the management of this pest.
  Asia Riaz , Muhammad Aslam and Nazia Suleman
  To evaluate resistance of seven strains of chickpea against Callosobruchus chinensis, three tests (confinement, free choice and antixenosis) were conducted in the postgraduate laboratory of the Department of Entomology, University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi during the years 1997-1999. Randomised Complete Block Design with four replications was used in all the tests. The cotton strains of chickpea namely NCS 96002, NCS 950004, NCS 950012, 92CC-076, 92CC-079, NCS 950183 NCS 960003 and one variety, Paidar-91 were collected from Pulses Section of National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad. In all the tests, the variety Paidar-91 was used as check/standard, being commercial variety in Potohar region. It was concluded that the chickpea strain NCS-960003 was found to be partially resistant in all the three tests when compared with the standard and NCS-950012 and 92CC-079 were turned out to be be partially resistant to susceptible. NCS-96002 was turned out to be partially susceptible to susceptible. NCS-960183, NCS-950004 and 92CC-076 did not differ much from the standard (Paidar-91).
  Saima Jamil and Muhammad Aslam
  Nine wheat cultivars (Rawal 87, Inqilab 91, Khyber 87, Sariab 92, Bakhtawar, Chakwal 86, Faislabad 85, C591 and Pak 81) were screened against Tribolium castaneum using 3 tests (free choice, confinement and antixenosis) in the Department of Entomology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi during 1999-2000. It was concluded that keeping Chakwal 86 as (susceptible/ check), Sariab 92 and Bakhtawar were found to be highly susceptible. Inqilab 91, Khyber 87, Faisalabad 85 were not significantly different from the standard Chakwal 86. Rawal 87 and Pak 81 turned out to be partially resistant. C591 turned out to be susceptible to partially resistant against Red FlourBeetle (RFB). The results showed that there was variability in different wheat cultivars and none of them found to be completely resistant. Although complete immunity was not possible, yet some of the genetic traits could be incorporated for evolving varieties which possess resistant characters. The present results also show that as susceptible variety is highly preferable, so it can be used as a quick and mass laboratory culture of RFB, which may be needed in other scientific experiments.
  Muhammad Aslam , Farid Asif Shaheen and Abdul Rehman
  Out of ten genotypes of sunflower (ISB 1-99, FJ 1-99, Sehala 1-99, Bahatar 1-99, Jatli 1-99, Jhelum 1-99, Dena 1-99, Hysun-33, Sohawa 1-99 and Triumph-573) screened against the attack Odontotermes obesus at Chaccanwali Deri Farms under UGC/UAAR Sunflower Project, Hysun -33 showed the highest number of termites per 303 cm3 and also the percentage of plants damaged by this pest was highest. In Jhelum 1.99, both the number of termites as well as the percentage of sunflower plants damaged by Odontotermes obesus were the lowest. IBD 1-99 and Triumph-573 showed also high percentage of damaged plants and number of termites next to Hysun-33. The other genotypes were some what intermediate based upon the criteria mentioned. The results showed that on different genotypes, the number of termites varied and this information could help in evolving plants resistant to insect pests and thus by sowing the resistant genotypes, the dependence on the heavy use of insecticides will be minimized and ultimately the pollution problems due to injudicious use of insecticides will also be reduced. The number of termites and the damage done by them to the plants were positively correlated. It showed that as number of termites increased, the percentage of damage to plants by termites also increased.
  Muhammad Aslam and Nazia Suleman
  In two experiments conducted in the Department of Entomology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, the duration of larval, pupal and adult stages of Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus) was concluded as 10.25, 7.50 and 5.75 days respectively. The larval, pupal and adult survival was recorded as 83, 62 and 42 percent. The sex ratio was computed as 2.23: 1.00. The average number of eggs laid per female was 141,25, The larvae preferred radish leaves, while medium number of larvae was attracted to cabbage and the lowest to sarson and turnip.
  Muhammad Aslam , Khalid Aziz and Muhammad Ali
  Maize is sensitive to drought and suffers a serious setback in yield due to high temperature stress. There is need to evaluate maize inbred lines, which are resistant to drought conditions. Ten maize inbred lines namely MO-17, DK-656, lZI-7103, SYP-31, AYP-17, H-93, B-73, A-6660, IZI-4001 and KLI-2301 were exposed to water stress in drought chamber. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients of various plant morpho-physiological traits with grain yield were ascertained. Survival rate treat-II, root-shoot ratio, stomatal frequency and photosynthetically active rations showed significant correlation at genotypic level with grain yield. The study emphasized that these morpho-physiological traits have underlying genetic basis. Once these basis are understood precisely, breeders will be able to tailor maize varieties with better yield potential.
  Muhammad Aslam , R. B. Chalfant and G. A. Herzog
  Anthonomus grandis grandis (Boheman), the boll weevil (BWVL), in a field experiment with 20 cotton strains planted in 3 levels [A (intense pesticide use), B (intermediate use of pesticides) and C (low pesticide use)] of pest management at the University of Georgia, Department of Entomology, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, USA, showed low to equal oviposition and feeding preferences on GATIR 84-664 and PD-0786 (a frego bract strain), while on the other lines either intermediate or equal oviposition and feeding preferences were found compared with Stoneville 213 (a susceptible check). It showed equal oviposition and feeding preferences in the averages of level B and C and less in level A.
  Saeed Ahmad Shah Chishti , Muhammad Akbar , Muhammad Aslam and Muhammad Anwar
  Sixteen early maturing genotypes of groundnut showed significant variation for all characters studied expect 100 kernal weight. Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) was higher than Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) for all the characters. High heritabilities (h2) for days taken to flowering and maturity were found very high. At genotypic level all the traits under study except days taken to maturity exhibited significant positive association with pod yield while it showed significantly negative correlation. Sound Mature Kernal (SMK) %age by weight longwith shelling %age and No of pods per plant had fairly high h2, high Genetic Advance (G.A.), significantly positive genotypic correlation and positive direct effect on pod yield. Hence selection for these traits would be effective in improving pod yield and oil contents in early maturing genotypes.
  Muhammad Aslam , G. A. Herzog and R. B. Chalfant
  In a field experiment, conducted at the University of Georgia, Department of Entomology, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, it was concluded that LAHG 810063, STHG 4-4, STHG 3-1 showed resistance, ARS TX HIGOS3, GATIR 84-662, LAHG 820060, showed intermediate resistance and TAMCOT CAB-CS showed partial resistance to susceptibility to Heliothis spp. (HS). The MISCOT strains showed susceptibility to HS.
  Muhammad Naeem Aslam , Muhammad Aslam and Farid Asif Shaheen
  An experiment was conducted at the student research farms of the University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi during 1999-2000 to find out the preference of Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus) (the cabbage butterfly (CBF)) on different Brassica genotypes. (Cyclone, SPS-5, CON-III, CCS-01 Oscar, CON-II and K.S-75). It was inferred that CBF showed the highest preference to Brassica genotype cyclone and the lowest to CON-II. It was also concluded that CBF showed variations in preferring hosts of different varieties of Brassica spp. and this information could be helpful in evolving varieties of Brassica resistant against this serious pest of cruciferous plants.
  Muhammad Aslam , Nazia Suleman , Asia Riaz , Abdul Rehman and Qamar Zia
  Surveys of Potohar Region (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Golra, Tarnol, Sehala, Mandra, Kalar Syedan, Attock, Fateh Jang, Bahatar Jang, Qutabal, Jand, Chakwal, Dhudial, Gujar Khan; Sohawa,Kamalpur, Daultala, Dena, Jatli, Kalas, Kahuta, Jhelum, Hazro, Sagri and Tret etc.) were carried out during early, growing and anthesis stages of sunflower plants (both spring and autumn 1999) under UGC/UAAR Sunflower Project. The insect pests found sunflower (cultivated and wild) included Chrotogonus spp. (Grass hopper), Agrotis spp. (Cut worm), Odontotermes obesus (White ants), Agapanthia dahlii (Stem borer), Melanagromyza spp. (Stem girdler), Aphis gossypii (Cotton aphid), Bemisia tabaci (whitefly) Agrius convolvoli (Horn worm), Empoasca spp. (Jassid), Suleima helianthana (Sunflower bud moth), Helicoverpa (Heliothis) spp.( Boll worm ),Spodoptera litura (Tobacco caterpillar), Plusia orichalcea (Cabbage semi-looper), Homoeosoma electellum (Sunflower moth), Nezara viridula (Green stink bug) Diacrisia obliquata (Hairy catterpillar), Myllocerus blandus (Cotton green weevil), Zygogramma exclamationis (Sunflower beetle) and Smicronyx spp. (Sunflower seed weevil).
  Muhammad Aslam and Hafeez-ur-Rahman
  Six different genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were screened against Aphids (Aphis gossypii), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), leaf miner (Phytomyza atricornis), green leaf hoppers (Empoasca spp.), painted bugs (Bagrada spp.), and sunflower seed weevil (Smicronyx spp.) at, early, growing and anthesis stages. The results concluded that SMH-9707 was found partially resistant against aphids, whereas SF-187 was found less-susceptible against leaf miner and resistant against whitefly. Suncross-24 was found highly susceptible against painted bug among all the six genotypes of sunflower. SF-187. Parsun-1 and suncross-24 were partially resistant against green leaf hoppers. SMH-9707 was found highly susceptible against sunflower seed weevil and SF-187 was found partially resistant.
  Muhammad Aslam and Naheed Akhtar Awan
  Sunflower plants also attract tremendous number of insects of beneficial nature (predators, parasites and pollinators including honey bees). To see which beneficial insects are attracted to which genotypes and to what extent, observations were made on different genotypes of sunflower and the bee pollinators (melittophily) and aphid feeders, Coccinella spp. (aphidophagy) found on different genotypes were recorded. The highest number of honey bees (Apis spp.) was attracted to Suncross-24 and the lowest to SF-187. On SMH-9706, SMH-9707, Parasun-1, SF-187 and Hysun-33, the number of honey bees attracted was the lowest. It was concluded that SMH-9707 attracted the highest number of lady bird beetles (Coccinella spp.).The genotypes SMH-9706, Parasun1, SF-187, Hysun-33 and Suncross-24 attracted statistically equal number of lady bird beetles. Hysun-33 had the highest number of aphids (Aphis gossypii) and on all other genotypes except SMH 9707, the number of aphids was intermediate. SMH 9707 had significantly lower number of aphids than Hysun-33. The lady bird beetles were found feeding on aphids on different genotypes of sunflower. These beneficial insects helped regulate the population of insect pests and also helped in the pollination of sunflower plants.
  Muhammad Aslam , Aamir Saeed , G.R. Pasha and Saima Altaf
  Obesity is an epidemic health problem worldwide that can result in many serious and sometimes, fatal diseases. It is very important to study such prevalence in developing countries, like Pakistan where people cannot afford the medical tolls, additionally, added to their non-meeting budgets, due to problems of obesity. The present study addresses the same issue by taking into account of 2000 adults from Multan city as case study of Pakistan. Although many of similar studies have also been carried out in the region but the present study evaluates the obesity prevalence according to recommendations of World Health Organization that in Asia Pacific Region, a person is considered to be overweight if BMI > 23 rather BMI > 25 and to be obese if BMI > 25 rather than if BMI > 30. According to this new definition, we report that more than 46% people are overweight (18.95%) and obese (27.85%). The percentage of normal people is just 28.65 while 24.55% are underweight. We report the mean MBI to be 22.87±0.086 (S.E), males have 13 kg more weight as compared to that of females have and males are more than 5 inches taller as compared to females, on the average. It is noted that mean BMI of males (23.51±0.11) and mean BMI of females (22.05±0.133) are different significantly. We find that 55.12% among males and 36.15% among females are either overweight or obese. The percentile plot of the data also displays the similar picture. We further report that married people are three times obese as compared to unmarried ones.
  Muhammad Aslam , Aamir Saeed , G.R. Pasha and Saima Altaf
  Body Mass Index (BMI) is considered to be the most popular measure for overweight and obesity. Numerous studies of BMI are limited to compute and interpret different percentiles of BMI and do not account for many other covariates affecting BMI. Conventional regression methods are used for estimating how covariates are related to mean values of the dependent variable but in many situations, we are interested in quantiles rather than in mean values as in the case of BMI analysis. The present study addresses the same using median regression. Some important covariates such as gender, age, marital status, daily working hours, daily exercise routine and number of meat-eaten days per week are included in the study and found to be significant.
  Muhammad Aslam , Muhammad Asif and Saima Altaf
  Smoking index measures the present burden of smoking in terms of cigarette-years or pack-years smoked. The present article is about estimation of smoking index for male smokers in Multan city. We used Indrayan’s smoking index that accounts for different characteristics like cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking, passive smoking, smoking of filter cigarettes, age at start and duration elapsed since quitting by ex-smokers etc. It is estimated that the average smoking index is 10.48±0.34 while the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles are 5.81, 9.51 and 13.66, respectively. Furthermore, the Weibull distribution is found to be the best fitted empirical distribution for the obtained dataset of smoking index with estimates of shape parameter and scale parameter as 1.6407 and 11.7049, respectively.
  Muhammad Aslam , Muhammad Ayyaz Khan , Inayat Ullah Awan , Ejaz Ahmad Khan , Ahmad Ali Khan and Ghulam Jilani
  This field experiment was undertaken on already green manured soil for comparing the efficiency of various organic manures used as alone and in combination, for wheat production. Organic matter sources/treatments used in the study were: Farm Yard Manure (FYM), Poultry Litter (PL), Press Mud (PM) and Sewage Sludge (SS). The amount of each organic amendments used singly was 20 t/ha, while their combinations had 10 t/ha for each of the two amendments making a total of 20 t/ha in a treatment. The experiment was conducted on wheat cv. Bhakkar 2002 as test crop for two consecutive growing seasons (year 2004-05 and 2005-06). Results revealed that Application of all types of organic materials (FYM, PL, PM and SS) and their combinations improved the growth and yield attributes of wheat significantly over control in both the years. The highest biological and grain yield was obtained with the application of PL alone followed by FYM+PL and PL+PM, with a significant difference among them. Economic analysis revealed that the value of Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR) was highest with FYM+PL followed by PM+SS and PL+PM. The lowest CBR values were recorded under FYM alone and FYM+SS. This was mainly due to smaller yield increase and additional income with these treatments.
  Muhammad Aslam , Muhammad Ayyaz Khan , Inayat Ullah Awan , Ejaz Ahmad Khan , Ahmad Ali Khan and Ghulam Jilani
  A field study was conducted on pre-green manured soil for the comparison of different organic manures applied singly and combined, for the production of wheat cv. Bhakkar 2002. Organic amendments used in the experiment included Farmyard Manure (FYM), Poultry Litter (PL), Press Mud (PM) and Sewage Sludge (SS). Quantity of the organic manures used as alone was 20 t ha-1 and their combinations contained 10 t ha-1 for each of the two amendments making up 20 t ha-1. The study was undertaken for two consecutive wheat growing seasons. The results indicated that combined use of PL, SS and their integration with other organic materials raised N contents in soil, wheat grain and straw to the maximum. The highest P contents in soil, wheat grain and straw were found with SS followed by SS+PL and PL alone and the highest K contents were recorded with PL, PL+PM and PM alone. It was found that N, P and K contents in soil, wheat grain and straw were highly correlated with N, P and K contents in the organic amendments.
  Muhammad Aslam and Saima Altaf
  Available literature explores that having knowledge about an individual’s body weight status, namely about the body mass index (BMI), remains helpful to overcome the problem of obesity. BMI growth chart may be taken as a useful tool in order to know an individual’s obesity status in terms of BMI. In the present article, we construct growth charts of BMI for males and females, separately using quantile regression approach. Cross-sectional data comprising of 2000 adult (aged 14 years or more) individuals, both males and females were taken from Multan city as a case study. Following some available studies, we take six powers of the variable age as covariates while running the quantile regression with logarithm of BMI as dependent variable. Thus, obtained plots of BMI against different ages for different quantile settings, are the resultant growth charts. Referring the constructed BMI growth charts, it is reported that BMI for females is quite sensitive to age and the females gradually continue to put on their weights as compared to male especially, for middle ages of 30-45. BMI growth norms, expressed as 5th, 50th and 95th centiles are also discussed and males are reported to be heavier than those of females in their teen-ages.
  Muhammad Aslam , Hassib Iqbal , Muhammad Amanullah , Atif Akbar and Saima Altaf
  Thyroid gland is one of the important glands in human body and thyroid disorder creates many serious health problems. The present work is based on the study of 200 individuals (57 male and 143 female) with thyroid disorder (i.e., goiterous patients) from Pakpattan, Pakistan. The said study explores the dietary habits, Body Mass Index (BMI) status and cluster analysis of these patients.
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