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Articles by Muhammad Arshad
Total Records ( 13 ) for Muhammad Arshad
  Tariq Mahmood , Muhammad Arshad , Muhammad Islam Gill , Hafiz Tariq Mahmood , Muhammad Tahir and Sabahat Hussain
  Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV) is one of the disease of cotton, which is transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gem). In a survey conducted during the year 2001-2002, it was observed that a new variant of Multan CLCuV was appeared on all resistant cotton varieties in culture at various locations in Vehari district especially in Burewala territory. The appearance of symptoms was experimentally confirmed through graft and whitefly transmission techniques under controlled environments at Central Cotton Research Institute, (CCRI) Multan, Pakistan. Results showed that all commercial varieties in culture, which were resistant to Multan CLCuV disease, fell prey to new variant to Burewala-CLCuV. Not with standing that even parental genetic stock from which these varieties were bred had shown their susceptibility to this new variant of Multan CLCuV (commonly known as Burewala-CLCuV).
  Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Aslam Chowdhry
  A diallel cross involving eight bread wheat genotypes were evaluated to determine the genetic behaviour of wheat genotypes across the environments. The experimental material was planted under irrigated as well as drought stress conditions. Data collected on yield and related traits revealed highly significant differences among genotypes under both sowing conditions. Graphical analysis revealed that additive action of genes for plant height and grains per spike under irrigated conditions changed to over dominance under drought. However, it was also found that gene action for flag leaf area, 1000-grains weight and grain yield per plant remained the same over environments. It was also observed that parental genotypes shifted their positions in the graphs from recessive to dominant or the midway or vice versa, showing different genetic constitution for the same trait in response to environmental change. Genotypes displaying similar constitution under both sowing conditions showed that they contain stable genes for those particular characters and may prove useful in future breeding strategies.
  Zahir Ahmad Zahir , Syed Anjum Abbas , Muhammad Khalid and Muhammad Arshad
  Ten Azotobacter cultures were isolated from the maize rhizosphere and their auxin producing ability was measured colourimetrically. The auxin production by three efficient Azotobacter cultures (Z1, Z3, Z4) was also measured in the presence of filter sterilized L-tryptophan (at 10–3, 10–4 and 10–5 M). Azotobacter culture Z4 gave relatively higher auxin production and was selected for further experiments. Azotobacter inoculation in combination with 10–4 M L-TRP gave maximum length and weight of maize roots, which was 117 and 60 percent higher than control, respectively. Leonard Jar experiments were conducted to study the response of shoot growth to Azotobacter inoculation and L-TRP application at 10–4 M separately and in combination with each other. Results showed that maximum length and weight of shoots were recorded by applying Azotobacter in combination with 10–4 M L-TRP which was 45.3 and 36.5 percent higher than control, respectively. The possible mechanisms of action are discussed.
  Muhammad Arshad and Qurrat Ul Ain Khan
  Ethnobotanical survey was carried out in Rawal Town. The winter medicinal flora of town consisted of twenty-five species, which belong to twenty families. Out of them seventeen were dicot and three were monocot. Family Euphorbiaceae had three species, which was followed by Amaranthaceae, Astraceae and Papilionaceae with two species each. The remaining families had one species each. According to survey carried out in the specified area four species that is Achyranthus, Capsella, Cynodon and Cyprus are used as diuretic and for the treatment of gall blabber diseases. The leaves and fruits of Acacia are used for curing cough. Amaranthus is highly effective against snakebite and rheumatism. Calotrpis is used for treatment of cholera and malaria, where as Cannabis is notorious for its narcotic effects and also used for curing diarrhoea. Carthamus is supposed to be effective in ulcer and itching. Cassia and Convolvulus are used as purgative. The vegetative part of Chenopodium is anthelmintic and those of Aloe are effective in eradicating piles. The stem, leaves and roots of Dalbergia are used in curing leprosy.
  Hafiz Naeem Asghar , Zahir Ahmad Zahir , Abdul Khaliq and Muhammad Arshad
  Rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of different varieties of rapeseed (Canola, Raya, Toria, Gobi Sarsoon and Sarsoon) selected from different sites of Punjab. These rhizobacteria were tested for auxin production in terms of indoleacetic acid equivalents by colorimeter method both in the presence and absence of an auxin precursor L-tryptophan (L-TRP). This study suggested that auxin production ability varied with variety and site ranging from 0.13 to 11.4 μg mL–1 without L-TRP and from 2.41 to 24.6 μg mL–1 with L-TRP. L-Tryptophan application increased the auxin production upto 184 fold compared with that produced without L-TRP. The significance of auxin production by rhizobacteria is discussed in relation to their effects on plant growth.
  Zahir A. Zahir , Ateeq-ur- Rahman , Naeem Asghar and Muhammad Arshad
  Being a physiological precursor of auxins, L-tryptophan (L-TRP) can have an ecological impact on the growth and development of some plants. A field experiment was conducted to assess the influence of L-TRP on growth and yield of rice. Results showed that specific growth and yield parameters were significantly promoted in response to various L-TRP treatments. L-tryptophan application at 10–5 M significantly increased the plant height (4.25%), paddy yield (41.5%), number of tillers (29.4%) and number of panicles (27.9%) compared to control. Results of this study demonstrated that the growth and yield of rice may be enhanced with the application of an auxin precursor, L-TRP. Bioproduction of plant growth regulators such as auxins in soil as a result of microbial activity from the added precursor may be recognised as having a potential influence on plant growth and development. Further studies are needed to investigate factors affecting the microbial production of auxins such as their distribution and stability in soil and their direct uptake by plants.
  Muhammad Arshad and Audil Rashid
  Two varieties of tomato were sown to determine the effect of NPK on tomato plants by using them independently under normal field conditions. Application of urea delayed flowering and fruit setting in both the varieties, but increased the number of fruit set, weight of fruits harvested per plant, weight of individual fruits and fruit yield/ha. Muriate of potash and controlled treatments did not have significant influence on yield components. Super phosphate treatment, however, gave better results then potash and controlled treatments for number of fruits set, and harvested fruit weight/plant and average weight/fruit and yield/ha. The average yield of Roma was significantly higher than that of Moneymaker in urea and super phosphate plots.
  Muhammad Khalid , Zahir Ahmad Zahir , Azhar Waseem and Muhammad Arshad
  A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Azotobacter and L-tryptophan (L-TRP) application on the growth, yield and nitrogen content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop. Two levels of L-TRP (10–3 and 10–4 M) were tested with and without Azotobacter inoculation in a fertilized (NPK: 125-100-60 kg ha–1, respectively) field. Results revealed that Azotobacter inoculation and L-TRP application significantly affected the wheat crop, however, their combined application produced more pronounced effect as compared with their separate application. Combined application of Azotobacter and 10–3 M L-TRP significantly increased the grain yield (21.3%), straw yield (20.7%), plant height (5.8%), number of tillers (15.3%), number of spikelets spike–1, (12.3%), spike length (11.6%), 1000-grain weight (6.4%), nitrogen concentration in grains (31.4%) and straw (26.1%) and total nitrogen uptake (56.3%), compared with untreated control.
  Zahir Ahmad Zahir , Muhammad Ateeq ur Rahman Malik and Muhammad Arshad
  Different field and pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of an auxin precursor, L-tryptophan on the growth and yield of rice, wheat, soybean, potato and tomato. Rice (cv. Basmati-385) seedlings treated with 10–2-10–5 M and 10–1-10–5 M L-TRP by dipping seedling roots in respective solutions for one hour gave maximum paddy yield and number of panicles per hill at 10–5 M, 10–2 M and 10–1 M L-TRP levels in different field trials. L-Tryptophan (10–4 M) significantly enhanced grain yield and 1000-grain weight of wheat (cv. Inqlab) in a field trial. Total biomass and grain yield in case of soybean (cv. William) were found maximum with 10–2 M L-TRP, fresh weight of tubers and yield of potato (cv. CEB 819-17) were observed at the highest value with 10–5 M L-TRP and number of fruits per plant and yield of tomato (cv. 366-87 Pakit) were at peak when treated at 10–4 M L-TRP in pot trials. In nutshell, L-tryptophan application to different crops significantly increased all the yield components. The data collected from different crops was subjected to Dunnett's test.
  Muhammad Arshad and Abida Akram
  The study was conducted to evaluate the fertility status of soil in the central Rechna Doab area. Fertility of the whole Central Rechna Doab area was low, Phosphorus in particular was low in all soils and some soil samples were Potassium deficient while few were low in nitrogen. The situation can be brought to medium fertility level by using proper amount of NPK on the basis of soil test evaluation. However, a high fertility level can only be achieved by all round efforts on scientific basis.
  Muhammad Arshad , Mohamed Zakaria , Ahmad S. Sajap and Ahmad Ismail
  The study on food and feeding habits of Red Junglef owl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) was conducted in three agriculture areas (orchard, rubber and oil palm plantation) by direct observation and crop contents analyses in Selangor, Malaysia. Red Junglefowl moved continuously in search of food and preferred by scratching the litter. It would feed in open areas early in the morning and evening. The rest of the day it would feed in shaded areas especially under trees. Red Junglefowl eats a variety of animals and plants. It prefers to eat the pericarp of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit, Iskandar palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae), Chiku (Achras sapota), Papaya (Carica papaya), Cempedak (Artocarpus integer), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) nuts, and seeds of Macaranga sp. Analyses of crops content shows that among the animals, Dermaptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Crustacea (Isopoda), leeches and snails were the predominant food. It also ate snails, eggshells, bones and snakes. The male Red Junglefowl consumed oil palm fruit more than did the female whereas the female consumed invertebrates and vertebrates more than did the male.
  Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Aslam Chowdhry
  To determine the impact of environment on the combining ability of bread wheat eight genotypes were crossed in a diallel fashion and the resulting material was grown under irrigated as well as drought stress conditions. Data collected on yield and related traits revealed highly significant differences among genotypes under both sowing conditions. Combining ability analysis revealed that GCA mean squares were significant for flag leaf area, plant height, grains per spike and 1000-grains weight under irrigated condition while GCA mean squares were significant for flag leaf area, plant height, tillers per plant and 1000-grains weight under drought stress condition. Mean squares due to SCA were highly significant for all the traits under both sowing conditions. It was revealed that additive effects were more important than the dominant for almost all the characters under both sowing conditions which indicated the importance of additive variation for the inheritance of these characters. The presence of both additive and non-additive variability suggested the utilization of certain genotypes and crosses to evolve new wheat genotypes for irrigated as well as drought environments e.g., parental genotypes like Parula, MH.97 and 87094 and specific crosses like 85205 H MH.97, Parula H MH.97, Parula H 87094, Crow H MH.97 and Chak.97 H Kohis.97.
  Muhammad ARSHAD , Saeed- ur-REHMAN , Ammad Hussain QURESHI , Khalid MASUD , Muhammad ARIF , Aamer SAEED and Riaz AHMED
  The nitrate complexes of transition metals with 1,2-diimidazoloethane (DIE) of the general formula M(DIE)(NO3)2, where M = Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), were synthesized. The compositions of metal complexes and ligand were investigated by elemental analysis in order to ensure their purity and the structure elucidations were based on conductivity measurements, room temperature magnetic moment studies, proton NMR, and electronic and IR spectra. The thermal behavior of these complexes possessing distorted tetrahedral geometry and their ligand was studied by means of thermoanalytical techniques in static air atmosphere in order to determine their mode of decomposition and thermal stability. All these complexes and ligand show 2-step weight loss upon heating to 740 °C, with simultaneous loss of inorganic and organic fragments exhibiting almost the same mode of decomposition pattern. The residue after heating above 640 °C corresponded to metal oxide. There was no residue in the case of ligand. The composition of intermediates and end products formed during degradation was confirmed by microanalysis and IR spectroscopy. It follows from the results that the thermal stability of the complexes increases in the following sequence:
Co(II) < Cu(II) < Zn(II) < Cd(II)
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