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Articles by Muhammad Arif
Total Records ( 8 ) for Muhammad Arif
  Muhammad Tahir Abbas , Muhammad Arif , Muhammad Saeed , M. Reyad-ul-ferdous , Muhammad Adeel Hassan , M.A. Arain and Abdur Rehman
  A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of fat emulsifier on fat utilization in broiler chickens using 240 days old chicks which were divided into 24 replicates in a 3×2 factorial arrangement under Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Experimental diets were formulated using 1, 2 or 3% fat with or without fat emulsifier (Lecithin) at 350 mg kg–1. The trial lasted for 35 days and was divided into starter and finisher phases. Statistical analysis of the data collected during the trial revealed that feed intake was not affected (p>0.05) by fat and fat emulsifier. Increasing fat levels resulted in a linear decrease (p<0.05) in starter weight gain but it didn’t affect (p>0.05) finisher and overall weight gain. Fat emulsifier affected (p<0.05) finisher, final and overall weight gain but starter weight gain remained unaffected (p>0.05). Starter Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased (p<0.05) with increasing fat levels but finisher and overall FCR remained unaltered (p>0.05). Fat emulsifier didn’t affect (p>0.05) starter FCR but finisher FCR was improved with fat emulsifier supplementation (p<0.05). Dietary fat didn’t affect (p>0.05) Dry Matter (DM) and Ether Extract (EE) digestibility but fat emulsifier significantly improved (p<0.05) DM and EE digestibility. The carcass composition study results revealed that fat emulsifier affected (p<0.05) the heart weight and linearly increasing fat levels resulted in a linear decrease (p<0.05) in gizzard weight. The combination of fat and fat emulsifier affected (p<0.05) finisher FCR, finisher weight gain, DM digestibility and EE digestibility. This investigation reveals that dietary fat should be avoided in starter diets and supplementation of fat emulsifier in broiler diets may improve DM and EE digestibility.
  Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada Ragab Farag , Muhammad Arif , Mohamed Emam , Kuldeep Dhama , Muhammad Sarwar and Maryam Sayab
  The concept of "Nanoparticle" is not applied to the individual molecules but it is usually used to indicate to the inorganic materials. These particles vary into different kinds due to their ability to carry different components and act to various conditions of the environment. The different sorts of nanoparticles are used in various sectors such as nutrition, pharmacy, medicine, drug delivery, therapeutics, vaccine formulations, diagnostics, chemical industry, biotechnology and biomedicine for safeguarding health of humans and animals as well as enhancing growth and production performances. The application of nanotechnology is very important in the 21st century to clean up the environment from contaminants by eco-friendly, sustainable, green and economically technologies. Nanotechnology became an essential element of pharmaceutical sciences and nanomaterials have found many applications in systems of drug delivery to enhance the therapeutic performance and efficacy of different drugs and medicines. Most of the current "Nano" systems of drug delivery are linage of conventional dosage forms like nanomicelles, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions. Also, nanotechnology will have a major role in the future areas of animal nutrition research. Nano additives could be incorporated in capsules or micelles of protein or other natural feed or food component. The use of nutrient nanoparticles may improve the bioavailability of carried nutrients by the epithelial barriers of the gut and their susceptibility to gastrointestinal degradation by digestive enzymes. Offering the matter in a nano form may also improve the functionality of feed/food molecules to the benefit of final product quality.
  Muhammad Saeed , Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Muhammad A. Arain , Muhammad Arif , Muhammad A. Mirza , Muhammad Naveed , Sun Chao , Muhammad Sarwar , Maryam Sayab and Kuldeep Dhama
  Chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a perennial herbal plant of the dandelion family Asteraceae, usually with bright blue flowers, rarely pink or white. Several varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons or roots which are baked, ground and used as a coffee substitute and supplement. It is also grown as a forage plant for poultry and animal. In addition, chicory herb plays a key role as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, immunological, productive and reproductive enhancer, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anticancer, anti-protozoal, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, analgesic, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, wound healing and bitter tonic without inducing therapeutic adverse effect. Regarding the hepatoprotective activity, chicory extract reduced the levels of hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Also, chicory plant is a good and very important protective source for hepatocytes and other liver cells as well as it is used as prebiotic against some species of pathogenic bacteria for both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, it enhances immunity and feed efficiency by decreasing pathogenic microorganisms of gastrointestinal tract. Cichorium intybus roots also were used for the relief of mild digestive disorders, such as feeling of flatulence, abdominal fullness, temporary loss of appetite and slow digestion. The present study highlights the importance of chicory as a feed additive used to improve growth and productive performance of poultry as well as salient beneficial applications in animals and humans. Furthermore, it explains the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of chicory and to find the effective level in poultry that would act as liver tonic.
  Mayada Ragab Farag , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Muhammad Arif , Tugay Ayasan , Kuldeep Dhama , Amlan Patra and Kumaragurubaran Karthik
  Chromium (Cr) is one of the essential minerals which is required for improving productive performance in poultry due to its important functions in metabolism, growth and reduction of lipid and protein peroxidation. Under heat stress conditions, Cr plays a crucial role in poultry nutrition, production and health as well as enhances growth performance and quality of eggs in meat and egg type chickens, respectively. Supplementation of Cr may increase body weight gain, improve feed efficiency and there is also increase in carcass yield of broilers. Chromium is also a potent hypocholesteremic and antioxidant agent. The beneficial impacts of Cr have been linked with improved the metabolism and immune system. Dietary addition of Cr has promising impacts on the immune system through increasing relative weights of lymphoid organ such as thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius, declined heterophil/ lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, enhancing the Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) response and improving the antibody response versus the infectious diseases. Dietary supplementation of Cr may stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes by improving the functions of liver and pancreas. Chromium present in many forms differs greatly in stability and oxidation states; therefore the added forms and concentrations should be managed well. Further, the increase in Cr dose in the diet could produce hazardous and toxic influences in chickens as well. This paper illustrates the positive and negative impacts of Cr including its physical and chemical proprieties, practical applications in poultry nutrition, production, enhancing immunity and health and a special reference to its toxic effects.
  Muhammad Saeed , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Muhammad Naveed , Muhammad Asif Arain , Muhammad Arif , Rab Nawaz Soomro , MohibUllah Kakar , Robina Manzoor , Ruchi Tiwari , Rekha Khandia , Ashok Munjal , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Kuldeep Dhama , Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal and Chao Sun
  Green tea is an important herb and its products are extensively used in the traditional Chinese medicinal system through various formulations. Several reports have revealed its beneficial usage and medicinal aspects for various ailments. Consumption of green tea has gained special attention and popularity in various sectors of the modern era of changing lifestyle. This review aimed to extend the current knowledge on the modes of action and beneficial applications of green tea in humans and animals for safeguarding different health issues. The nutritional, immunological, pharmacological and physiological functionalities of green tea are because of the available bioactive components like caffeine, L-theanine, polyphenols/flavonoids and others. It possesses multi-beneficial potential in treating and preventing various disorders of animals and humans, as well as promoting animal (dairy, piggery and goatry) and poultry industry. The present review provides insights on the modes of action and beneficial applications of green tea, which will be useful for nutritionists, pharmacists, physiologists, researchers, veterinarians and animal and poultry producers. Future research emphasis and promotional avenues are needed to explore its potential therapeutic applications for designing appropriate pharmaceuticals, complementary medicines and effective drugs to popularize and propagate its multidimensional health benefits.
  Seung Wook Lee , Daniel S. Hussey , David L. Jacobson , Cheul Muu Sim and Muhammad Arif

Recently, it has been demonstrated that a shearing type interferometer, using precision silicon gratings, enables one to image the gradient of neutron phase shift through an object and retrieve the phase via a simple one-dimensional integration of the gradient. To fully explore this new technique for potential future cold neutron imaging stations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, we have developed a prototype phase imaging station at a monochromatic cold neutron beamline in the NCNR neutron guide hall. We have designed the silicon gratings for a neutron wavelength of 0.44 nm and fabricated them using the state-of-the-art nanofabrication facility at the NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology. Here we will discuss the experimental apparatus, as well as the recent experimental results obtained with this prototype apparatus. We will also present the data analysis method used for the phase retrieval, and discuss the accuracy of the method as well as the measurement sensitivity obtained using this method.

  Muhammad Arif , Mushtaq Ahmed Mian and Fazli Raziq Durrani
  This study was planned to investigate the optimum level of Egyptian clover, as a supplementary protein source in broiler ration. Five experimental rations having 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% sun-cured Egyptian clover were fed to 250 broiler chicks. A pro-experimental period of 5 days was followed by 35 days of experimental period. Average weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, cost of feed per unit weight gain and mortality were used as criteria of response. The mean body weight gain per chick was 1343b, 1385b, 1388b, 1457a and 1365b grams (p<0.01). The average feed consumption per chick was 3446b, 3423b, 3464b, 3687a and 3307b grams (p<0.05). The mean feed efficiency (feed/gain) was 2.57, 2.47, 2.50, 2.53 and 2.42. The mean dressing percentage was 72.48, 72.99, 72.72, 72.54 and 72.20; the average cost of feed per Kg body weight gain was Rs. 20.56, 19.56, 19.63, 19.68 and 18.63 and mortality was 2, 6, 10, 6 and 2% for treatment having 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% clover respectively. Considering all the parameters of response it was concluded that sun-cured Egyptian clover might be used at 6% dietary level in the broiler ration for optimum performance.
  Muhammad ARSHAD , Saeed- ur-REHMAN , Ammad Hussain QURESHI , Khalid MASUD , Muhammad ARIF , Aamer SAEED and Riaz AHMED
  The nitrate complexes of transition metals with 1,2-diimidazoloethane (DIE) of the general formula M(DIE)(NO3)2, where M = Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), were synthesized. The compositions of metal complexes and ligand were investigated by elemental analysis in order to ensure their purity and the structure elucidations were based on conductivity measurements, room temperature magnetic moment studies, proton NMR, and electronic and IR spectra. The thermal behavior of these complexes possessing distorted tetrahedral geometry and their ligand was studied by means of thermoanalytical techniques in static air atmosphere in order to determine their mode of decomposition and thermal stability. All these complexes and ligand show 2-step weight loss upon heating to 740 °C, with simultaneous loss of inorganic and organic fragments exhibiting almost the same mode of decomposition pattern. The residue after heating above 640 °C corresponded to metal oxide. There was no residue in the case of ligand. The composition of intermediates and end products formed during degradation was confirmed by microanalysis and IR spectroscopy. It follows from the results that the thermal stability of the complexes increases in the following sequence:
Co(II) < Cu(II) < Zn(II) < Cd(II)
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