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Articles by Muhammad Abdullah
Total Records ( 3 ) for Muhammad Abdullah
  Muhammad Nadeem , Arshad Javid , Muhammad Abdullah , Atta Muhammad Arif and Tariq Mahmood
  The main objective of this study was to improve the nutritional value of butter milk by blending with dry leaves of Moringa oleifera that can be used to prevent and correct malnutrition in women and children of this poor nation. Dry leaves of Moringa oleifera was incorporated into butter milk at three different concentrations i.e. 1% addition (T1), 2% addition (T2) and 3% addition (T3). All these treatments were compared with a control T0 without any addition of dry leaves of Moringa oleifera (100% butter milk). Addition of dry leaves of Moringa oleifera at all levels did not have any negative effect on pH and acidity of the fortified butter milk. Protein and ash content increased from 3.41-4.09% and 0.75-1.13% which was 20 and 50% respectively at T3 level. Iron and calcium content of the fortified butter milk increased from 0.03-6.77 and 117.22-174.34 mg/100 grams in T3. Vitamin C, B1, B2 and B3 increased by 168, 233, 393 and 624% respectively as compared to control. Addition of dry leaves of Moringa oleifera at T2 level did not have any significant effect on color, taste and overall acceptability scores. The overall acceptability score of T3 was 6.7 out of 9 which was more than 74%. It was concluded that dry leaves of Moringa oleifera can be used at T3 level (3% addition) to formulate fortified butter milk with increased health benefits and acceptable sensory attributes.
  Muhammad Nadeem , Muhammad Abdullah , Arshad Javid , Atta Muhammad Arif and Tariq Mahmood
  The main objective of this research work was to develop a functional fat from Butter Oil (BO) and Moringa oleifera Oil (MOO) blends by interesterification process. To prevent the separation of liquid and solid phase the blend was chemically interesterified. MOO was incorporated into BO at five different levels i.e. T1 (90% BO and 10% MOO) T2 (80% (BO) and 20% MOO) T3 (70% BO and 30% MOO) T4 (60% BO and 40% MOO) and T5 (50% BO and 50% MOO). All these treatments were compared with a control T0 which did not contain any addition of MOO (100% BO). Melting point of all the treatments along with control increased after interesterification. Melting point of T5 was 35.5°C with iodine value of 60.44 (g/100 grams). Cholesterol reduction with beta cylodextrin increased as the concentration of MOO increased in the blend. The cholesterol reduction in T1 and T5 was 87 and 94% respectively as compared to control 85%. Oxidative stability was significantly increased with increasing augmentation of MOO in the blend. After 5 days in oven at 63°C the peroxide value of T5 was 2.19 as compared to control 13.14 (M. Eq./kg). It can be concluded that MOO and BO can be used in the formulation of functional and shelf stable fat.
  Muhammad Abdullah , Rashid Ahmad Khan , Shahid Yaqoob and Munir Ahmad
  The Cholistan rangelands were observed to be degrading due to various stresses, whose effects could be seen as poor livestock production. Hence a preliminary survey was conducted in order to assess the nutrients concentration of major browses used as feed during the period of whole year for livestock grazing therein. The browse species were evaluated by their mineral composition including the macro minerals (P, K, Na, Ca and Mg) and micro minerals (Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe). The investigated species were consisting of Calligonum polygonoides, Suaeda fruticosa, Salsola baryosma, Haloxylon recurvum, Haloxylon salicornicum, Capparis decidua, Calotropis procera, Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis cineraria and Acacia nilotica. The browse samples were collected based on preferences by grazing animals, accessibility to browsing and abundance in the said area. The results of this study indicated that the concentration of almost all the minerals (micro and macro) except Na among selected browses was less than required level for ruminants grazing therein. This may be, one of the causes responsible for the pitiable health and productivity of livestock in Cholistan rangelands. The low quality forages require the attention of range manger to improve the habitat conditions and livestock breeds. It was proposed that fertilization of soil and vegetation with additional sources will not only improve the over all vegetation but also enhance the productivity of grazing animals and other wildlife. These rangelands have potential for improvement provided proper ecological management practices and with participation of local community.
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