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Articles by Muhammad Rizal Razman
Total Records ( 23 ) for Muhammad Rizal Razman
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Abdul Samad Hadi , Jamaluddin Md Jahi , Abdul Hadi Harman Shah , Sham Sani and Ghazali Yusoff
  The international environmental governance and law scholars suggested that interest approach might influence in the early negotiations of creating Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). Moreover, the existence of interest approach would lead for international environmental collaborations by promoting the principle of transboundary liability, subsequently influence in the early negotiations of creating MEAs, which include the Montreal Protocol. The Montreal Protocol has managed to seek international environmental collaboration among almost all of the nations in the world, which made the Montreal Protocol become a successful one. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to explain the influence of interest approach that promotes the principle of transboundary liability in the international environmental governance and law on regards of the Montreal Protocol’s early negotiations and the relations of the interstates participation response. Meanwhile, the methods of this study are based on qualitative set up, which is based on the meetings’ proceeding reports of the Montreal Protocol. Finally, the results potentially provide with better understanding of the influence of interest approach in promoting the principle of transboundary liability in order to lead for further development and expansion of the rules on international environmental governance and law for achieving the global environmental protection goals.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Abdul Samad Hadi , Jamaluddin Md. Jahi , Kadir Arifin , Kadaruddin Aiyub , Azahan Awang , A. Hadi Harman Shah , Ahmad Fariz Mohamed and Shaharuddin Idrus
  The law of private nuisance plays an important role in the occupational safety, health and environmental management. The used of the law of private nuisance to the area of the occupational safety, health and environmental management is largely in reply to the necessity of every each employee to protect his or her rights and interests on the safety health and environment at the work place. The above-mentioned protection, in a way, fit in the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Decent Work Agenda elements. Therefore, this study will examine the used of the law of private nuisance in relation to the occupational safety health and environmental management from Malaysian legal perspectives, identify actions and cases, which deal with the occupational safety, health and environment at the work place. Finally, discuss the law of private nuisance as a tool to protect employees on the safety, health and environment at the work place in Malaysia in accordance to International Labour Organisation (ILO) Decent Work Agenda.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Abdul Samad Hadi , Jamaluddin Md. Jahi , A. Hadi Harman Shah , Ahmad Fariz Mohamed , Shaharuddin Idrus , Kadir Arifin , Kadaruddin Aiyub and Azahan Awang
  The principle of transboundary liability as one of the international law mechanisms plays an important role in human habitat and environmental protection. The used of the principle of transboundary liability in human habitat and environmental protection is largely in respond to the inevitability of every human to protect human habitat and environment from being polluted in their surrounding and habitat. Therefore, this study examines the used of the principle of transboundary liability in relation to the human habitat and environmental protection from the international legal approach by identifying actions and cases, which deal with human habitat and environmental protection. This study is also identifying, the relation between the principle of transboundary liability and Rio Declaration as a means to protect human habitat and environment.
  H.M. Rusli Zaina , Muhammad Rizal Razman and Jamaluddin Md Jahi
  Interest approach which concerns with costs and benefits would lead for environmental co-operations that plays an important role in urban sustainability by promoting the precautionary principle. The used of the precautionary principle to the area of urban sustainability, largely in response to the necessity of every each individual state to protect their rights and interests in order to safeguard the environment in urban area. Therefore, this study will examine the used of the interest approach which concerns with costs and benefits which promote the precautionary principle in relation to the urban sustainability from the legal perspectives; identify actions which deal with the protection for the human habitat and environment as well as a tool for the achievement in sustainable development in urban area.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Jamaluddin Md. Jahi , Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria , Abdul Samad Hadi , Kadir Arifin , Kadaruddin Aiyub and Azahan Awang
  The law of private nuisance plays an important role in environmental awareness towards sustainable development. The used of the law of private nuisance to the area of environmental awareness is largely in reply to the necessity of every each individual to protect their rights and interests in land from being polluted towards sustainable development. Therefore, this study will examine the used of the law of private nuisance in relation to environmental awareness in Malaysia, identify cases and actions which deal with environmental awareness in Malaysia and lastly, discussing the law of private nuisance as a tool of environmental awareness in Malaysia towards sustainable development.
  Abdullah Sulaiman and Muhammad Rizal Razman
  Islamic banking is ready to accept legal framework on the principle of transboundary liability which based on the concept of sustainable development. The concept of sustainable development has been defined by the world commission on environment and development as development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. The before said concept covers two essential scopes, i.e., environment and governance aspects. As the result, one of the legal framework approach under the concept of sustainable development is the principle of transboundary liability. The principle of transboundary liability plays an important role in the area of environmental law and governance. The used of the principle of transboundary liability in the area of environmental law and governance is largely in respond to the inevitability of every human being around the globe to protect environment from being polluted in their surroundings. As for the Islamic banking is concerned, the bank may created an essential mechanism to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, this study examines the used of the principle of transboundary liability in Islamic banking with relation to the environmental law and governance by identifying actions and cases which deal with environmental protection. This study is also identifying the relation between the Islamic banking which applied the principle of transboundary liability and Rio Declaration as a means to protect mother nature.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman
  Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) are the global environmental laws that are being used in governing global environment by taking precautionary measures to control world emissions of pollution. In order for the MEAs to become a reality, as the global environmental laws, MEAs need to seek for the global environmental cooperation among all states around the world. The global environmental management scholars suggested that global financial mechanisms through interest approach might influence in the negotiation of creating MEAs. Moreover, the existence of the interest approach which concerns with global financial mechanisms would lead for international environmental cooperations. This would influence in the negotiations of creating MEAs which include the Montreal protocol. Montreal protocol is one of the successful MEAs that managed to secured environmental cooperation among almost all of states in the globe. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to explain, the influence of interest approach which included global financial mechanisms in the global environmental management on regards of the Montreal protocol’s early negotiations and the relations of the interstates participation response. Meanwhile, the methods of this study are based on qualitative set up which is based on the meetings proceeding reports of the Montreal protocol.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Rabiatul Jannah Mohamad , Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria , Zurina Mahadi , Kadir Arifin and Zuliskandar Ramli
  Sustainable development is very essential to protect the environmental surroundings as well as for the better living environment for mankind. One of the international law that adopted the principle of protecting the environment is Montreal Protocol. Montreal Protocol is one of the successful international environmental laws. Montreal Protocol managed to seek international environmental cooperation among almost all of the states in the world. There are several values that supported the sustainable development has been incorporated, compromised and negotiated throughout the implementation of Montreal Protocol at the national level in Malaysia. This ideas and values towards sustainable development that have been incorporated in the implementation process assisted in successful of Montreal Protocol’s implementation in Malaysia. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to explain the influence of financial and technical incentives (focusing on ideas and values towards sustainable development) during the early stage of negotiations that build up the international environmental cooperation in the Montreal Protocol. Meanwhile, the methods of this study are based on qualitative set up which is based on the meetings’ proceeding reports of the Montreal Protocol. Finally, the results potentially provide with better understanding of the influence of financial and technical incentives (focusing on ideas and values towards sustainable development) in implementation the Montreal Protocol based on Malaysia experiences.
  Sulthan Zainuddin , Andi Mascunra Amir , Yahya R. Kibi , Muhammad Khairil , Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria and Muhammad Rizal Razman
  Small scale gold mining in Poboya has damage the natural resources. There are two points of the area that sustain the excessive extraction such as in point of 0°, 51, 10, 85” LS and 119°, 56, 43, 23” BT, height of 593 DPL (location 1) and then in point of 0°, 52, 19, 37” LS and 119°, 56, 50, 52”BT, height of 685 DPL (location 2). Actually, local people in Poboya have local knowledge due to natural resource management techniques. However, local knowledge is not able to stem natural resources of extraction process. It is getting worse through the assumption of local that what they do is harmless or not dangerous. Furthermore, various researches proved that Poboya has experienced pollution, disruption to public health and environmental damage. Upon that fact, then implementing social engineering technique is needed to change the behavior of people who endanger themselves and others. In this regard, all that needs to be done is to inform the public about the dangers and risks of their research while providing an environmentally friendly mine alternative solution through an open pit system of gradual excavation techniques from the highest elevation to the low elevation and to the depth of the mining boundary that has been determined.
  Muhammad Basir- Cyio , Alam Anshary , Mahfudz , Isrun Baso , Muhammad Nur Ali , Golar , M. Rusydi , Rustam Abdul Rauf , Muh. Fardhal Pratama , Moh. Alfit Laihi , Betty , Taqyuddin Bakri , Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria , Azlina Abdullah and Muhammad Rizal Razman
  This study provides evidence that acts of terror that have hit the people of Central Sulawesi Province of Indonesia for decades due to the outbreak of terrorist groups in Gunung Biru (Blue Mountain) which caused trauma and anxiety that directly affect the economic condition of the community. The analytical analysis study was conducted in three locations, namely, Poso, Sigi and Parigi Moutong District which have direct access to Gunung Biru. The socio-psychological data were collected using phenomenological and ethno-methodological approaches to develop a chronology of socio-anthropological problems, ranging from anxiety, fear, deadlock and trauma to terror that disturbs the work of peace. The level of loss of farmer’s incomes over the last 10 years was calculated from farmer’s receipts generated from converted agricultural lands before and after the presence of the terrorist groups. The results show that the fertility of the soil chemistry and the physics of the farmland around Gunung Biru are included in the category of moderate to high impact. Socio-psychological symptoms of heavy and severe anxiety levels were very high at 31.0% and the severe trauma rate was 53.4%, due to the terrorist group operating on Gunung Biru. As a result of such tremendous anxiety and trauma, tens of thousands of farmers have not dared to work on their farms, since, 2005. Loss of farmer’s income due to terrorist threats in Gunung Biru amounted to Rp. 90,109,601,406/year which resulted in impoverishment, thus, most of the farming families could not afford to send their children from junior high school to senior high school, especially, to college.
  Kadir Arifin , Shaharuddin Ahmad , Kadaruddin Aiyub , Azahan Awang , Lukman Z. Mohamad , Azmi Aziz , Samsu Adabi Mamat and Muhammad Rizal Razman
  This research studied students perception and awareness on occupational safety and health management in residential college. To achieve this objective, Ibrahim Yaakob College (KIY), University Kebangsaan Malaysia was chosen as a case study. Even though safety and health management aspects has been implemented through out the university, there are possibilities that students are exposed to certain types of accident and injuries. Therefore, it is important to carry out this study in order to ascertain to what extent the level of safety and health awareness among students at KIY. About 129 respondents were chosen among students who stayed at KIY. Pearson correlation method was employed to analyze the data. The result showed that various perceptions were given by respondents in relation to management level and occupational safety and health procedure at KIY. The study also found that there was a significant relationship between demographic factors and occupational safety and health training. Furthermore, the university should pay more attention to the aspects of safety and health management especially among residential college occupants, thus the welfare of the student can be managed properly.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Azrina Azlan , Jamaluddin Md Jahi , Kadir Arifin , Kadaruddin Aiyub , Zahan Awang and Z.M. Lukman
  Agenda 21 based on parts 19.1 and 19.11 highlighted that there are thousands of chemical substances in the world market, a lot of which emerge as poison and toxin in business goods, food and the variety of environmental medium especially in urban area. This has shown that chemical substances bestow awful impact to the environment which includes urban area. Therefore, this study will classify the relevant Malaysian laws on environmental management that managed chemical substances particularly in urban area in order to achieve urban sustainability. This study also has become aware of that there is no specific law in Malaysia that governed the environmental management on chemical substances. However, there are several laws that regulate the environmental management of chemical substances in different area such as the Environmental Quality Act 1974. The Environmental Quality Act, 1974 is related to the control of chemical substances in air and hazardous wastes whilst the Food Act, 1983 controlling chemical substances in the products and goods in the food industry. As for the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1994 is on regards chemical substances in the occupational environment and meanwhile the Pesticides Act, 1974 to control chemical substances in pesticides. Meanwhile the management of these laws is not the responsible of a single government ministry. Different government ministries may enforce the laws relevant to the operation of that ministry. Hence, the Environmental Quality Act, 1974 is the responsible of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1994 is by the Ministry of Human Resources whilst the Food Act, 1983 is by the Ministry of Health and as for the Pesticides Act, 1974 under the supervision and administration of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry. Finally this study has concluded that Malaysia has a sufficient laws in which may adequately control chemical substances in various life cycles as to comply with international law particularly in urban area in order to achieve urban sustainability.
  Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria , Abdul Samad Hadi , Muhammad Rizal Razman , Kadir Arifin , Kadaruddin Aiyub and Azahan Awang
  Interest approach which concerns with costs and benefits would lead for environmental awareness that plays an important role in environmental sustainability by promoting the precautionary principle. The use of the precautionary principle to the area of environmental sustainability, largely in response to the necessity of every and each individual state to protect their rights and interests in order to safeguard the environment. Therefore, this study will examine the use of the interest approach which concerns with costs and benefits which promote the precautionary principle in relation to the environmental awareness and sustainability from the legal perspectives; identify actions which deal with the protection to the environment as well as a tool for the achievement in sustainable development.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Jamaluddin Md. Jahi , Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria , Abdul Samad Hadi , Kadir Arifin , Kadaruddin Aiyub and Azahan Awang
  Environmental awareness plays important role towards sustainable development. This can be done through the application on the principle of transboundary liability. The used of the principle of transboundary liability to the area of the environmental awareness, largely in response to the need of individuals to protect their rights and interests in property in order to meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, this study will examine the used of the principle of transboundary liability in relation environmental awareness in order to achieve sustainable development from the international environmental law perspectives, identify actions and cases which deal with environmental awareness towards sustainable development and also identify the relation between the principle of transboundary liability and Rio Declaration as a means for sustainable development.
  Emrizal and Muhammad Rizal Razman
  Criminal law and precautionary principle hand in hand play essential roles in environmental sustainability. The used of the Criminal law and precautionary principle in environmental sustainability is largely in respond to the inevitability of every individual to protect environment from being polluted in their surroundings. Therefore, this study examines the used of the Criminal law and precautionary principle hand in hand with relation to environmental sustainability from the legal approach by identifying actions and cases which deal with environmental sustainability in order to achieve sustainable development.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Jamaluddin Md. Jahi , Mazlin Bin Mokhtar , Kadir Arifin , Zuliskandar Ramli , Kadaruddin Aiyub , Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria and Azahan Awang
  The law of tort focusing on negligence plays an important role towards environmental sustainability in Malaysia. The application on the law of tort focusing on negligence within the scope of interest approach to the area of environmental sustainability is largely in reply to the necessity of individual to protect his/her interests and rights against environmental pollution and harm. Therefore, this study will examine the application on the law of tort focusing on negligence in relation to interest approach and sustainability from Malaysian legal perspectives. Identify actions and cases which deal with interest approach as a tool in order to achieve environmental sustainability.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Abdul Samad Hadi , Jamaluddin Md Jahi , Abdul Hadi Harman Shah , Sham Sani and Ghazali Yusoff
  Global environmental governance and law principles provide the focal framework for global collaboration along with the global community in order to safeguard Mother Nature at the national, regional and global levels. At each level, the conscientiousness has driven out to be progressively more multifarious as new protagonists and concerns are drawn into the global governance process. Some of the global environmental governance scholars have suggested that a global forum might have an influence on the negotiations for creating Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) by promoting the precautionary principle. Moreover, the existence of such a forum would lead to global cooperation in order to achieve sustainable development. The Montreal Protocol has managed to seek global environmental cooperation among almost all of the states in the world, which made the Montreal Protocol become a successful one. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to explain the influence of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) global forum in the global environmental governance by promoting the precautionary principle with regard to the Montreal Protocol’s early negotiations and the relations of the interstates’ participation response. This study has adopted the qualitative approach, which is based on the meetings’ proceeding reports of the Montreal Protocol. This study has also acknowledged that the global forum of UNEP had played an essential role as a strong environmental forum by promoting the precautionary principle in order to influence the Montreal Protocol’s early negotiations and the response of the interstates’ participation. Based on the results of the analysis, we have identified the main themes as activities and committees, while the eight sub-themes are meetings, workshops, conferences, coordinating committees, secretariat, advisory panel, working groups and Governing Council. Finally, the preliminary findings indicate that UNEP as a global forum which promotes the precautionary principle in the negotiations of the Montreal Protocol was important in terms of to lead for further development and expansion of the rules on global environmental governance and law in order to seek global environmental cooperation to protect global ozone layer (O3) from Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Norsham Abdul Latip , Jamaluddin Md Jahi , Abdul Samad Hadi , Abdul Hadi Harman Shah , Kadir Arifin , Kadaruddin Aiyub , Azahan Awang , Shaharudin Idrus and Ahmad Fariz Mohamed
  The law of tort on private nuisance plays an important role in urban sustainability. The used of the law of tort on private nuisance to the area of urban sustainability, largely in response to the necessity of every each individual state to protect their rights and interests in order to safeguard the environment in urban area. Therefore, this study will examine the used of the law of tort on private nuisance in relation to the urban sustainability from the legal perspectives; identify actions which deal with the protection for the mother nature and as a tool for the achievement in sustainable development in urban area.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Sakina Shaik Ahmad Yusoff , Shamsuddin Suhor , Rahmah Ismail , Azimon Abdul Aziz and Kartini Aboo Talib Khalid
  Environmental sustainability derived from the concept of sustainable development that promotes the capacity to sustain the quality of life we value in order to safeguard environment, especially towards better living environment for consumer. One of the international law that harmonised the concept of sustainable development in order to achieve environmental sustainability for consumer protection is The Basel Convention 1989. Basically, the Basel Convention 1989 is an international legal instrument that control the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes in which incorporated and adopting the principle of transboundary liability. The principle of transboundary liability plays an important role in environment protection as well as consumer protection in order to achieve environmental sustainability. The used of the principle of transboundary liability in environmental protection is largely in respond to the inevitability of every consumer to environment from being polluted in their surroundings. As for the Basel Convention is concerned, the convention created an essential mechanism to protect environment as well as consumer protection in order to achieve environmental sustainability from negative effects of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes globally. Therefore, this study examines the used of the principle of transboundary liability in the Basel Convention 1989 looking at the international law and governance perspectives by identifying actions and cases which deal with environmental protection as well as consumer protection in order to achieve environmental sustainability. This study is also identifying the relation between the Basel Convention 1989 which adopting the principle of transboundary liability as a means to protect environment as well as consumer protection in order to achieve environmental sustainability.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Jamaluddin Md. Jahi , Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria , Abdul Samad Hadi , Kadir Arifin , Kadaruddin Aiyub and Azahan Awang
  The law of negligence plays an important role towards environment awareness and sustainability. The application on the law of negligence to the area of the environmental awareness and sustainability is largely in reply to the necessity of individual to protect his/her interests and rights against pollution. Therefore, this study will examine the application on the law of negligence in relation to the environmental awareness and sustainability from Malaysian legal perspectives. Identify actions and cases which deal with environmental awareness and sustainability as well as a tool in order to achieve sustainable development.
  Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria , Nor Alina Mohamad Roslan , Mazlin Mokhtar , Abdul Samad Hadi , Muhammad Rizal Razman , Jamaluddin Md. Jahi , Zuliskandar Ramli and Norul Hajar Nordin
  In most tropic and sub-tropic countries in the world, dengue fever is an outbreak disease. In Malaysia, one of the environmental management approaches in dealing with dengue fever cases is by enforcing relevant laws. This study inquiries as to enforcement reasoning to explain how effective the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988 (Act 342) as one of the relevant laws in Malaysian on dengue fever cases towards urban sustainability. Meanwhile, the methods of this study are based on qualitative set up which is based on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988 (Act 342) as the primary source of document. Finally, the results potentially provide with better understanding of the enforcement of the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988 (Act 342) on dengue fever cases towards urban sustainability.
  Muhammad Rizal Razman , Jamaluddin Md. Jahi , Mazlin Bin Mokhtar , Kadir Arifin , Abdul Samad Hadi , Zuliskandar Ramli , Kadaruddin Aiyub , Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria , Shaharuddin Idrus and Ahmad Fariz Mohamed
  The interest approach within the law of tort by focusing on private nuisance plays an important role in environmental sustainability towards sustainable development. The used of interest approach within the law of tort by focusing on private to the area of environmental sustainability is largely in reply to the necessity of every each individual to protect their rights and interests in land from being polluted towards sustainable development. Therefore, this study will examine the used of the interest approach within the law of tort by focusing on private in relation to environmental sustainability in Malaysia, identify cases and actions which deal with environmental sustainability in Malaysia and lastly, discussing the interest approach within the law of tort by focusing on private nuisance as an instrument of environmental sustainability in Malaysia towards sustainable development.
  Zuliskandar Ramli , Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd. Rahman , Adnan Jusoh , Yunus Sauman and Muhammad Rizal Razman
  Candi Pengkalan Bujang site 21/22) is one of the temple sites of Buddha element that used bricks as its main construction material in addition to the use of pillar bases made from granite stones and pillars believed to have been made of wood and palm roof. Relative dating that was made on this site suggests it was built between the 9-10th century AD. The two main structures, namely a structure that had vimana and mandapa areas, as well as stupa structure showed there was evolution in temple construction using bricks after the 10th century AD, in particular in the usage of bricks and its arrangement. This study will focus on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to create this temple of which its main purpose is to see whether the raw material used to produce the bricks utilised local raw material. The two analysis techniques will be used, namely; the X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (XRF) and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD) in determining the major and trace element content, as well as mineral content in the ancient bricks. Results of the study show that the major minerals in the ancient bricks of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (site 21/22) are the presence of major minerals, such as quartz, muscovite and microcline while other minerals that exist in small quantities are minerals, such as gibbsite, mullite and kaolinite. Kaolinite mineral content in the PB21/22 (xx-xxii) samples shows that the bricks were fired at a temperature below 550°C. PB21/22 (iii, iv and viii) samples only contained quartz mineral content and this shows that the samples were fired at high temperatures between 850-1000°C. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing the bricks. The major and trace element content also show that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is suggested that local raw material was used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the knowledge transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley had already begun, since the 4th century.
 
 
 
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