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Articles by Muhammad Naeem
Total Records ( 17 ) for Muhammad Naeem
  Raza Hafeez Ahmad , Muhammad Naeem , M. Yasin Ashraf and Ejaz Rasool
  The research work reported here was carried out to evaluate the effect of salinity and nitrogen on two gram varieties (Punjab-91 and C-44 in pots with three salinity levels 3.5 (control), 7.5 and 11.5 dS m-1 and four nitrogen levels i.e., 60, 75 and 90kg N ha-1 as urea It was observed that plant height increased as the amount of urea increased under 3.5 dS m-1. At higher salinity levels plant height showed retrogressive effect. Number of pod/plant were the maximum when 60 and 75 kg ha-1 urea was applied. But pod plant decreased at higher salinity levels sharply. Biomass of plant also increased with the addition of urea. Number of seeds/ pod were maximum at 3.5 dS m-1 with 60 and 75 kg N ha-1 urea. Number of seeds pod, yield/ plant and 100 seed weight were the maximum when 60 kg N ha-1 urea was added in saline soils. As for as amount of K+ and Na+ are concerned the maximum amount of K+ was observed in leaves while it was minimum in shoots. Urea decreased K+ and Na+ ion uptake in saline soils. Nitrogen percentage in seeds also increased with the addition of urea. But it decreased when 90 kg N ha-1 urea was added in each salinity level.
  Muhammad Tahir Jan , Muhammad Idrees Khan , Rashid Mahmood and Muhammad Naeem
  For aphid management, mix cropping (PBM and PRM), four insecticides(DDVP, Anthio, Monitor and Laser) and yellow plastic sheet trap were used. The incidence of the pest was recorded on the leaves of the potato plants and yellow plastic sheets. The emergence of the pest on the crop occurred during October, which increased to the peak 43 aphids /leaf in the month of December. However on yellow plastic sheets, alate form of the aphids were recorded during the third week of September, which remain in abundance from the fourth week of November to the third week of December with the highest count 235 aphids /trap during second week of December. Among the treatments YPT, PBM and Monitor were found most effective against aphids during the entire growing season. Maximum reduction (72%), in YPT, (70%) in PBM and (52%) in the plot reserved for Monitor, in the aphid population was recorded. In the remaining treatments 40-50% of the population was reduced during the intact growing season of the potato crop when compared with control.
  Sultan Salah-ud-Din , Muhammad Naeem , Ahmad Hassan Khan and Muhammad Shahid Munir Chauhan
  Six varieties of sorghum including a check were evaluated. Significant differences were observed among the varieties for plant height, while differences for number of leaves per plant, number of tillers per meter row, stem thickness, leaf area and green fodder yield were non significant. The variety F-9601 showed the highest green fodder yield potential of 64.67t ha -1 followed by F-9603 (63.41t ha -1) and Hegari (60.39t ha -1). The check variety JS-263 produced a green fodder yield of 59.52t ha -1.
  Muhammad Shahid Munir Chohan , Muhammad Naeem , Ahmad Hassan Khan and Sultan Salah-ud- Din
  Ten newly developed varieties of Sorghum along with two check varieties were evaluated. Significant differences were observed for plant height, number of leaves per plant and leaf area, while differences for number of tillers per meter row, stem thickness and green fodder yield were non-significant. The variety F-9905 produced the highest green fodder yield (69.62 t ha-1) followed by F-9904 (69.44 t ha-1) and F-9909 (69.06 t ha-1). The check varieties JS-88 and JS-263 produced 65.55 and 63.33 t ha-1 green fodder yields, respectively.
  Muhammad Naeem , Muhammad Arif Khan , Muhammad Shahid Munir Chohan , Ahmad Hassan Khan and Sultan Salahuddin
  Seventeen varieties of oats including a check were evaluated for green fodder yield potential. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed for plant height (102.78-127.67 cm), number of tillers per meter (85-114.33), leaf area (52.32-91.30) and green fodder yield, while differences for number of leaves per tiller were non significant. The variety reil produced the highest green fodder yield, of 83.95 t ha -1 followed by No.646 (81.17 t ha -1), jasper (80.86 t ha -1) and foot hill (80.25 t ha -1). The check variety local Sargodha produced a green fodder yield of 66.05 t ha -1.
  Muhammad Tariq Khan , Muhammad Naeem and Muhammad Akram
  An experiment was conducted to find out the most economical number of sprays for the control of insect pest complex of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Different applications of curacron 500 EC and polytrin-C 440 EC were applied on variety gomal-93. The boll number and seed cotton yield increased, while the boll weight decreased with increase in number of sprays. Three and four spray applications gave lowest yield (1449 and 1453 kg ha-1 respectively), while five and six sprays were at par with maximum yield (2554 and 2581 kg ha-1, respectively). Although seven and eight sprays gave maximum yield (2605 and 2677 kg ha-1, respectively), but keeping in view of the cost involved and safety of the ecosystem, five sprays based on pest's economic threshold level are most economical that gave reasonable yield (2683 kg ha-1).
  Nazish Bostan and Muhammad Naeem
  Two tests i.e., confinement and antixenosis were performed to evaluate the six wheat cultivars (MH-97, Sariab-92, Rawal-87, Margala-99, Chakwal-86 and Chakwal-97) against Tribolium Castaneum, during March-June 2001, using Randomized Complete Block Design. Data were collected daily for antixenosis test and by an interval of one week for confinement test. After applying statistical results, it was found that for antixenosis test all verities have shown highly significant results. For confinement test, it was found that Chakwal-97 was the most susceptible and Rawal-87 was most resistant. The result showed that there was variability in different wheat cultivars resistance and none of them found to be totally resistant. Although complete resistance was not possible, but some of wheat varieties could be used with specific genetic traits to develop resistant characters. These results also showed that the susceptible variety is most preferable by the pest, so it can be used as a quick and mass laboratory culture of RFB, which may be used in other scientific experiments.
  Khalida Khan , Muhammad Naeem , Muhammad Javad Arshad and Muhammad Asif
  High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic technique was employed to study caffeine contents in beverages. The samples were collected from local markets of Pakistan and determined its quality, quantity and suitability. A certified testing method for caffeine extraction was developed. Two extraction methods were used throughout this work solvent extraction and column extraction. The resulted extracts were concentrated then injected in HPLC equipped with ultra-violet detector. The quantitative results when compared with reference standard proved that column extraction is more selective then solvent extraction.
  Khalida Khan and Muhammad Naeem
  The present study was conducted to investigate the quality of hen`s egg and to elaborate the contamination of toxic metals and their distribution between feed and egg. For this purpose, Toxic elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr and Fe) have been investigated their quality, quantity, suitability and possible health hazards. Lead, chromium and cadmium were found higher concentration and cobalt was detected below the detection limit. Atomic absorption spectroscopy technique was used for performing these tests and data of different local batches in Pakistan were compared.
  Muhammad Hussain , Muhammad Naeem , M. Yasin Ashraf and Zafar Iqbal
  Effect of salinity on yield of three barley cultivars Jou-83, Jou-87 and Haider-93 were investigated. It was noted that the number of fertile tillers, spike length, 100 seed weight, yield per plant were higher in Jou-83 followed by Jou-87 and Haider-93. Jou-87 produced highest number of grain per ear followed by Jou-83 and Haider-93. Grain yield production was highest in Jou-83. Reduction in yield per plant in highest salinity level compared to control was 77.22 % in Jou-83 while the corresponding value was 91.78 % for Jou-87 and 86.35 % for Haider-93. Accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions increased with increase in salinity levels in all plant parts (root, stem and leaf). Jou-83 maintained lowest Cl- ion concentration than other varieties while Na+ ion accumulation was slightly higher than Jou-87.
  Muhammad Naeem , Abdus Salam and Arghwan Jafar
  In the present study intramuscular injection of Ovaprim-C was studied on the number of eggs kg 1, fertilization rate and hatching percentage during May, 2002 in fish hatchery Islamabad on Thaila, Catla catla. Fishes were spawned successfully following a single dose of injection of ovaprim (LH-RH analogue) with 0.7 mL kg 1 for female and 0.2 mL kg 1 for male, ova and milt were stripped simultaneous and mixture was stirred for 15-30 sec during which fertilization occurred. Hatching occurred within 18-32 h after fertilization. Experiment was conducted in circular spawning tank with 2m diameter. Regression analysis was applied to assess the body weight dependence of absolute fecundity (total number of eggs) and relative fecundity (number of eggs kg 1). It was observed that body weight has positive influence on absolute fecundity (r = 0.983) while relative fecundity remains fairly constant with increasing body weight (r = 0.453). Equations were developed to describe these relationships. If it is impossible to determine the relative fecundity then it can be determined from the body weight. The equations of these parameters are highly significant (p< 0.001) and can be used to estimate the relative fecundity with a fair amount of accuracy.
  Abdul Shakoor , Muhammad Naeem and Hanif Munawwar
  Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum L) genotypes (fourteen) wereevaluated for stability of grain yield performance across (five) locations in the country. The yield ranking of the varieties varied across the locations. Mean squares due to variety x environment interaction were highly significant indicating genetic differences among varieties for linear response to different environments. Pearl millet variety IC 8206 gave the highest average grain yield (1881 kg ha-1) indicating response to only favourable environments and was less stable across the locations. Based on the parameters of stability, the local varieties were the most adaptive and stable, followed by PARC MS-4 and Ghana White. The varieties PARC MS-5 and PARC MS-6 were found suitable for growing in good environments while varieties PARC MS-2 and ICMV 96101 were suitable for poor environments.
  Muhammad Naeem , Hakoomat Ali and Saeed Ahmad
  Weed count, weed fresh weight per meter square of mungbean were found to be significantly different in various weed control treatments. However, maximum values of these parameters were obtained in weedy check and minimum in hand weeding treatments. Almost all herbicides at either dose or method of application produced similar results.
  Muhammad Naeem and Saeed Ahmad
  Although plant height was the maximum in weed-free plots, but differences were non-significant among plots having competition up to 30 days after emergence of mungbean. Weed competition with mungbean beyond 30 days after emergence was critical and resulted in considerable reduction in pod length. Maximum biological yield was produced in plots maintained weed-free throughout the growing season. Minimum biological yield was recorded from plots where weed competition prolonged up to 50 days after crop emergence and also up to harvesting of mungbean. Weed competition with mungbean persisting for 20-30 days after crop emergence was very critical and prolonged competition resulted in substantial yield reduction.
  Muhammad Naeem , Michael J. Emes and M. Yasin Ashraf
  Starch, the major source of calorific intake in the human diet, is synthesised in the amyloplasts of non-photosynthetic tissues. To understand its synthesis, to determine which substrate is taken up by the organelle and which metabolite is broken down for the release of energy, the present studies were started from potato tuber (cv. Record). Glucose 1-phosphate (Glc1P) was the most effective substrate for starch synthesis in amyloplasts. The rate of incorporation of hexose (Glc1P) into starch was dependent on the presence of exogenous ATP and on the intactness of the preparation. Rates of starch synthesis from Glc1P plus ATP were linear for up to 1h and was saturated by 5-10 mM Glc1P. The uptake of Glc1P was inhibited by the addition of exogenous glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) and was not effected by the addition of 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3PGA). Other than Glc1P, ADPglucose (ADPG) also supported similar rates of starch synthesis, however, rate was saturated by 1mM ADPG. The import of ADPG and ATP into the amyloplast indirectly indicate the presence of an adenylate translocator on the organelle membrane. Carbohydrate oxidation in the amyloplast was stimulated by the addition of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamine. Glucose 1-phosphate also proved to be a better substrate for oxidative pathways than glucose 6-phosphate. The implications of these results for our understanding of the pathway of starch synthesis and carbohydrate oxidation are discussed.
  Muhammad Naeem and Abdus Salam
  Eighty one Farmed Bighead Aristichthys nobilis of different body size ranging 8.80- 47.81 cm total length and 6.86-1766.0 g body weight were used for the analysis of morphometric variable of head length, head width, dorsal fin length, body girth, body depth, tail length and width in relation to total length and body weight of the fish to investigate allometric growth. It was observed that all these relations showed very high correlations. Slopes of the log transformed data were used to compare with an isometric slope, it was found that all the parameters examined showed isometric growth in relation to either total length or body weight, growth in weight is almost proportional to the cube of its length, the values of the slope which is not consistent with cube law. Regression parameters were found to be highly significant.
  Abdus Salam , Muhammad Naeem and Shehnaz Kauser
  In the present study fifty two fresh water wild Puntius chola of variable sizes ranging from 5.0-9.5 cm total length and 1.95-13.02 g body weight were sampled from the reservoir of fish seed hatchery Rawalpindi to investigate the parameters of weight-length and condition factor. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Each fish was measured and weighed. It was observed that growth in weight is almost proportional to the cube of its length. The value of the slope b = 2.80 which coincides with the slope of that of an ideal fish. Condition factor (K) remains fairly constant with increasing length or weight. Regression parameters were found to be highly significant.
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