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Articles by Muhammad Ayyaz Khan
Total Records ( 6 ) for Muhammad Ayyaz Khan
  Shah Jehan Khan , Muhammad Ayyaz Khan , Haji Khalil Ahmad , Rahm Din Khan and Yusuf Zafar
  Tissue culture techniques were used to develop soma-clones in sugarcane to screen salt tolerant clones subsequently. Callus masses derived from young leave of high yielding cultivar of sugarcane (CP-43/33). The plantlets were regenerated from one month old callus. The plantlets were transplanted to pots after hardening. The grown up plants were transplanted to well prepare soil. The sets of well developed plant were planted in saline sodic soil. Screening of salt tolerant soma-clones was made. The salt tolerant soma-clones performed better in the characteristics of number of tiller/plant, stem height, number of nodes/stem, root band width with variability of 20, 50, 8.33 and 14.3%, respectively. The soma-clones performed less in the characteristics of girth of stem and brix (%) of 12.5 and 5.2, respectively.
  Mohammad Safdar Baloch , Inayat Ullah Awan , Gul Hassan , Muhammad Ayyaz Khan , Khalil Ahmad and Muhammad Zubair Sulemani
  A survey was conducted from 50 randomly selected rice growers from 25 villages of Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan. The survey report revealed that 96 percent rice growers planted well-adapted high yielding coarse rice variety IR-6. All the farmers followed recommendations regarding land preparation using tractor and tractor-mounted implements. Half of the population used their self-produced seed, which was kept under profaned conditions. Majority of the farmers raised rice nursery during the month of April to mainly escape from the attack of rice stem borer. More than half (56%) used optimal age (30-40-days-old) rice nursery. Almost all the population (96%) used transplanting method but none of them used the line method of transplantation. Although, a big fraction (36%) of the sampled population was illiterate, yet all were applying recommended doses of fertilizers. Similarly, most of the growers (70%) were impelled to apply canal water at 4-8 days interval according to the water schedule given by the Revenue department. Majority of the population reported weeds and pest (stem borer) in rice crop. The per hectare rice yield of the farmers interviewed, although, exceeds the national average rice yield but none of the growers could fully exploit the potential yield of the cultivar. The frequency of the sampled population for getting information from nearby growers was very high mainly due to uncertain and insufficient knowledge provided by the other sources. Fifty-four percent of the farmers needed loan for the purchase of fertilizers, insecticides etc for rice crop and thirty-two percent declared banks as the suitable source of credit. Water shortage, high costs of inputs, non-availability of skilled labour during peak planting season, sub-optimal plant population, weeds and pest infestation, high dependence of knowledge on nearby growers and low price of rice in the local market were the major restrictions in higher yields of rice in Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan.
  Muhammad Ayyaz Khan and T.H. Flower
  Organic nitrogen compounds were evaluated for interferences in NH4-N determination in water, 2M KCl and 0.5M K2SO4 at NH4-N level of 0 and 1.0 mg l-1. The results revealed that organic nitrogen compounds interfere negatively in NH4-N determination using the Technicon AutoAnalyzer II. Soil extracting solutions like 2M KCl and 0.5M K2SO4 further increased interferences by these compounds. These results suggested that a pre-treatment step either distillation or gas phase dialysis should be included to reduce the interferences caused by the organic nitrogen compounds in the NH4-N determination by the Technicon AutoAnalyzer II.
  Muhammad Ayyaz Khan and T.H. Flower
  Inclusion of original dialysis system with Technicon AutoAnalyzer II did not show smooth flow which resulted in non reproducible peaks. Air flow across the dialysis membrane disturbed the air bubble pattern. The chemistry of main Ammonium-N system was affected by 0.1M HCl in the acceptor stream. Therefore, 0.01M hydrochloric acid was found suitable in the accepter stream of the dialysis.
  Muhammad Ayyaz Khan and T.H. Flower
  The development of a gas dialysis system proved that ammonium-N recovery was inversely proportion to acceptor flow rate. The relationship between amonia trapping and acceptor flow rate was considered a crucial parameter and the best flow rate for donor and acceptor streams was chosen for the analysis of water and extract samples. The Technicon silicon gas dialysis membrane showed very low ammonia transference. Polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) membranes allowed higher amounts of ammonia to be transferred through them. Recovery of ammonia using the standard 6 inch dialyser was 56.7 percent. Analysis at 20 samples per hour showed adequate peak separation and good peak shapes. The standard deviation of the results was between 0.002 and 0.004 for a 1 mg l-1 ammonium-N solution. Calibration curves were linear (y=4.14+15.7x, r2=0.99 and y=5.11+42.82x, r2=0.98). Hence, the developed system was sufficiently precise and reliable for its use in NH4-N determination.
  Muhammad Ayyaz Khan and T.H. Flower
  The dialysis system was included in the main manifold for ammonium-N determination of the Technicon AutoAnalyzer II. Studies using this system indicated that only traces of NH4-N were present as impurities in organic nitrogen compounds such as urea, aspartic acid, lysine and histidine. Positive and negative interferences in the NH4-N determination were attributed to hydrolysis or participation of the organic nitrogen compounds in the colorimetric reaction. These positive and negative interferences were eliminated by gas dialysis. The level of random variability measured with dialysis was consistant with random variability due to solution preparation and to the system complexity. The dialysis system was further developed for the determination of NH4-N in Kjeldhal digests. Dialysis use with Technicon AutoAnalyzer II did not disturb the precision of the system.
 
 
 
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