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Articles by Muhammad Aslam
Total Records ( 16 ) for Muhammad Aslam
  Muhammad Aslam and Muhammad Misbah ulhaq
  The research work was carried out to study the resistance of 9 genotypes (65 A 24, DK 3915, FH 81, PN 2KS, PARSUN I, IBD 2KS, HYSUN 33, SH 3322, PG 2KA) of sunflower against Bemisia tabaci and Empoasca spp. in autumn 2001 at Dhoke Wajjan. In case of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and green leaf hopper (Empoasca spp), the highest population (7.63+0.37 and 7.71+0.41 respectively) was recorded in the 39 week of the year 2001. The genotype PN 2KS, SH 3322 and IBD!2KS were found to be resistant against Bemisia tabaci. Whereas DK 3915 found to be susceptible. Other genotypes, 65 A 24, PG 2KA, PARSUN I and FH 81 were found to be highly susceptible. The correlation was found to be negative between pest population and yield of genotypes. The results for green leaf hopper (Empoasca spp) revealed that SH 3322, PN 2KS and IBD!2KS were found to be resistant. Whereas DK 3915 and 65 A 24 were susceptible. FH 81 was found to be highly susceptible. Correlation was found to be negative between yield and pest population (P<0.01).
  Muhammad Ijaz and Muhammad Aslam
  In the experiment conducted at University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi during 2002, it was concluded that there was great difference in mean infestation of Odontotermes obesus during 2nd and 9th week of the year 2002.Mean infestation percentage was maximum(7.89%) during 2nd week of the year 2002.The infestation rate then declined somewhat and remained between 5.90%- 3.10% during next five weeks. Infestation trend during 9th week declined uncertainly. Then mean infestation decreased to minimum level(I.58%) during 9th week. The reason of this great difference might be that as the crop grew to maturity, it became more vigorous and became resistant to termite attack. During the observation of the environmental factors, it was seen that rainfall and temperature were negatively correlated with mean infestation indicating inverse relationship. Humidity was positively correlated with mean infestation of Odontotermes obesus indicating direct relationship.
  Muhammad Aslam , Nadia Iqbal , M. Mohsin Iqbal , M.A. Haq and Y. Zafar
  In the present study, a series of experiment were carried out to investigate the influence of explant type and media combination on the induction of embryogenic callus, plant regeneration and suitable explant for DNA microinjection. The size of explant played major role in the plant regeneration. Mortality rate was high when smaller size explant was used. The plants developed through meristem culture did not undergo any type of malformation because the meristems are highly organized tissues and showed no variation for the phenotypic characters in these studies. With the increase in kinetin concentration up to 2 mg L-1, shoot formation was enhanced and callus initiation and proliferation was observed which was maximum at 6 mg L-1 concentration. Best media for callus induction, shoot and root regeneration was MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 K and 1.5 mg L-1 IAA. All varieties showed higher degree of root formation except FH-900 and CIM-446 that showed least rooting. The MS medium without growth regulators produced moderate shoot and root formation while medium containing different levels of phytohormones effected significantly in shoot and root formation. Charcoal had positive effect on callus induction and browning was reduced. It is concluded that cotyledon and root from the local genotypes are not suitable explants for callus induction and proliferation. Ovules and hypocotyls are the best for callus induction. The efforts are underway to develop plant regeneration procedure for gene transfer leading to rapid introduction of leaf curl virus resistance into the higher yielding cotton genotypes and vice versa.
  Muhammad Asif Arshad , Muhammad Aslam and Faisal Iqbal
  The increase in information services on the shared media such as voice over IP is creating an unprecedented demand for bandwidth. As shared media service providers and backbone service providers continue to upgrade their infrastructure to accommodate this demand, the flat rate pricing schemes and their inherent cross-subsidies will continue to create economic inefficiency and wasteful resource allocation. To pay for the bandwidth that is consumed, IT departments charge costs back to users. This creates some accountability, but the systems that are employed, which are based on flat-rate connection and port charges, are usually too imprecise to truly motivate users to employ shared media more thoughtfully. One solution being implemented is a change in the economic structure of the IP business through usage-based billing. Usage-based billing refers to any billing scheme where a customer’s bill is scaled in some way to reflect actual use of network services. A discussion presented in this study based upon some well defined and widely accepted Voice over IP (VoIP) traffic models. Based on arguments for and against usage-based billing, conclusions are drawn regarding the extent to which usage-based billing can be expected to permeate the market.
  Munir Ahmad , Nighat Perveen , Muhammad Sultan , Muhammad Aslam and Muhammad Aulakh
  Two commonly used insecticides, Methamidophos 60SL @ 1000ml/ha and Monocrotophos 40WSC @ 1500 ml/ha were evaluated on Amrasca devastans L. during 1999 on Pusa Swani, Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma okra varieties. Both insecticides provided effective control of Jassid and kept the population below economic threshold level up to ten days after insecticidal application. However, Methamidophos 60SL proved better on Pusa Swani as compared to Monocrotophos 40WSC, which decreased jassid population on Parbhani Kranti, Sabz Pari and Karishma, respectively.
  Muhammad Aslam , Muhammad Younis Jatoi and Farid Asif Shaheen
  The influence of environmental factors including temperature and relative humidity was observed on thrips feeding on Rose, Rloss indica Var. Iceberg, ( Rosaceae) planted at the main campus of University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi. The results revealed that there was a negative correlation between the population density and temperature, which meant that the number of thrips decreased with increase in temperature and positive correlation existed between the population density of thrips and relative humidity meaning increase in thrips population with increase in relative humidity level. The studies concluded that environmental factors play very significant role in regulating the population of thrips attacking the flowers of this important plant (the rose).
  Muhammad Aslam and Muhammad Ashfaq
  To observe the incidence and damage of Agrotis ipsilon on different sunflower genotypes (Hysun-777, XF-263, Award, T-562, 9706, 9705, 9707, PSF-025, Parsun-1, 1435, JH1 99S, JH2 99S, PNSF1 and Hysun-33) a field experiment was conducted under UGC/UAAR Sunflower Project.Sunflower genotypes, 9706, JH2 99S and PNSF 1 showed somewhat partial resistance to A ipsilon. XF 263 and 9707 showed somewhat more susceptibility than Hysun-33.All other genotypes did not differ from Hysun-33 and thus were susceptible to A. ipsilon. The number of larvae of A. ipsilon and damage done by them were significantly and positively correlated. The genotypes which showed some resistance to the attack of A. ipsilon could be included in the programmes evolving genotypes resistant to the attack of this pest and thus pollution problems due to heavy use of insecticides could be minimized.
  Muhammad Younis Jatoi , Muhammad Aslam , Misbah-ul-Haq and Shakeel Ahmad
  Antixenosis of Brevicoryne brassicae on different genotypes of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) was studied.The Golden acre, C110, B25, 14YXMEK2, DEC1XB21,CF2XLI2-11, and CF1XDT46 showed statistically less number of aphids while CF1XCF2, CF2XE34_A1 and DEC1XRB4PE attracted more number of aphids and the aphid thus showed more preference on these genotypes as compared to the others. The native variety Golden acre from Pakistan although attracted the least number of aphids but the number was not statistically different from the others mentioned earlier. The aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae discriminated among different cabbage genotypes and environmental factors including temperature, humidity and rainfall influenced the number of aphids per plant.
  Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Aslam
  Field studies were carried for response of different insect pests to some sunflower genotypes and their correlation with yield component. The most important species attacking on the fourteen sunflower genotypes were Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennad.), Surface grasshopper (Chrotogonous spp.) and Green leafhopper (Empoasca spp.). As for as the infestation of Bemisia tabaci is concerned, the sunflower genotypes 9705 was found partially resistant whereas JH299S and JH199S were partially susceptible. The sunflower genotypes Parsun-1, PSF-025, Hysun-777, Award and 9707 were found intermediately susceptible. The sunflower germplasms XF-263, T-562 and PNSF-1 were susceptible. The genotypes 1435 and 9706 were considered as highly susceptible. The results described for Empoasca spp. concluded that the genotypes of sunflower 9705 and JH299S were found partially resistant whereas JH199S and Hysun-777 were considered as partially susceptible. The sunflower germplasms T-562, XF-263, PNSF1, 1435 and PSF-025 were taken as partially susceptible. The genotypes Parsun-1 and 9706 were found susceptible whereas 9707 and Award were highly susceptible. The genotypes 9705, 9707 and JH299S were found partially susceptible against Chrotogonous spp. whereas JH199S, PSF-025 and 1435 were declared as intermediately susceptible as compared to Hysun-33. PNSF1, Hysun-777 and 9706 were susceptible and the Parsun-1, T-562, XF-263 and Award were taken as highly susceptible. The genotypes 9705, JH299S, 9707 were partially susceptible against Chrotogonous damage as compared to Hysun-33 whereas PSF-025 was taken as intermediately susceptible. The sunflower genotypes 1435, PNSF1 and Hysun-777 were found susceptible and when Hysun-33 was compared with the sunflower genotypes 9706, Parsun-1, T-562, XF-263 and Award, these were highly susceptible. A negative correlation was observed between the population of pests and yield of sunflower genotypes. The correlation between percent plot damage and Chrotogonous population was found positive which understand that with increase in pest population, the damage was also increased.
  Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Aslam
  The resistance of different sunflower genotypes against some insect pests was investigated in the field. Fourteen sunflower genotypes were screened against Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphids), Nezara viridula (L.) (Green stink bug) and Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thrips). In case of Aphids, the sunflower genotype 9705 was partially resistant whereas JH299S, JH199S, Hysun-777, T-562 and PSF-025 were found partially susceptible genotypes. The germplasms XF-263 and 1435 were taken as intermediately susceptible. The susceptible genotypes were PNSF-1 and 9706 when compared with standard germplasm. Parsun-1 and Award were found highly susceptible to Aphids population. In case of Nezara viridula, conclusion was made that the sunflower germplasms 9705, JH299S and JH199S were partially resistant against this pest as compare to Hysun-33 whereas Hysun-777 was found partially susceptible. PSF-025, T-562 and 1435 were declared as intermediately susceptible. PNSF-1 was susceptible. The sunflower germplasms XF-263, Parsun-1, 9706, 9707 and Award were taken as highly susceptible having highest number of pest as compare to Hysun-33. Results of Thrips tabaci concluded that 9706 and JH299S were partially resistant whereas XF-263 and Award were found highly susceptible to pest as compare to Hysun-33. The genotypes 9707, JH199S and Parsun-1 were partially susceptible to pest population. Hysun-777, T-562, PSF-025 and 1435 were taken as intermediately susceptible against thrips whereas PNSF-1 and 9706 were found susceptible. A negative correlation was also found between pest population and the yield of sunflower genotypes.
  Muhammad Aslam and Muhammad Ashfaq
  Relationships in anthesis, maturity and yield of different sunflower genotypes were studied in fourteen sunflower genotypes. It was observed that in different genotypes of sunflower there were variations in days to anthesis and maturity and on an average basis the anthesis in different genotypes initiated in about 8.3571 ± 1.0082 weeks after sowing of crop (34th week of 2000) and the genotypes matured after an average of 14 ± 0.8771 weeks after sowing. This period needed for maturity falls in the range of less than 100-120 days generally needed for the maturity of this crop. There were variations in the yield of different genotypes and the genotypes were also evaluated on the basis of this component. The highest yield obtained was of the genotype 9705 (1711.11 kg ha -1) and the lowest of XF 263 (266.66 kg ha -1). On an average basis, the yield was concluded as 855.0686 kg ha -1 and this yield falls in the range generally recorded from the rainfed sunflower crops. These studies concluded positive and significant correlation in weeks to anthesis, maturity and yield at 0.01 and 0.05 levels and the former two influenced the sunflower grain yield positively and significantly.
  Muhammad Aslam , Khalid Ali Khan and M.Z.H. Bajwa
  The experiment was conducted to investigate the insecticidal potency of some spices against pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis) on stored chickpea with six treatments. The data were recorded on days to 100% mortality, days to adult emerged, number of adults emerged and chickpea weight loss (%). Minimum number of days to 100% mortality was observed in cloves and black pepper treated pulse beetles, while maximum number was recorded in control treatments. Equal number of days to adult emerged was counted in all the treatments including control. Minimum number of adults emerged was counted in cloves and black peppers treated pulse beetles. However, maximum number was counted in control treatments. Lower weight loss percent was also calculated in cloves and black peppers treated pulse beetles as compared to other treatments. However, higher weight loss percent was calculated in control treatment.
  Zaheer Ahmad , Muhammad Aslam , Maqsood Ahmad Gill , Muhammad Yaseen and Hamud-ur-Rehman
  Soils of Pakistan are frequently characterized as deficient in plant-available phosphorus (P). The option of fertilizer applications to cope the situation has proved cost-intensive for resource-poor farmers of the country. Under the circumstances, exploitation of genetic variations in crops for P-use efficiency and identification of P-efficient crop cultivars hold great promise. Experiments conducted at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad indicated significant growth differences among varieties of wheat, rice, chickpea and cotton when grown under P-deficient as well as P-adequate conditions. Differences in relative adaptability of varieties to P-deficiency stress were also considerable. In this paper, work done in Pakistan and elsewhere on genotypic variations of P-nutrition of crops is briefly reviewed. Various physiological mechanisms responsible for such variations are also discussed.
  Shakeel Ahmed and Muhammad Aslam
  Study on the influence of environmental factor on rose aphid(Macrosiphum rosaeiformis Das (Homopetra:Aphididae) was conducted in the campus lawns of University of Aarid Agriculture Rawalpindi. The aphid population was found from March to May and peaked in the 2nd week of April, 2000. The greater aphid densities were recorded on the top portion of plant. High temperature (over 30 °C) associated with relative humidity, rainfall and windstorm substantially reduced the number if aphids on rose. Deformation of stems, leaves and flowers resulted in case of strong infestation by the aphid.
  Ibrar-ul-Hassan Akhtar and Muhammad Aslam
  Research was conducted to determine the preference and non-preference behaviour of red flour beetle against wheat, rice, paddy and sunflower crushed grains under laboratory conditions in university of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2000. In the antixenosis experiment, the red flour beetles were observed at 24 h interval. Red flour beetle had shown highest preference to rice crushed grains with mean 9.2500±1.8875, medium preference to paddy crushed grains with mean value 5.2500±2.7500 and least preference to wheat and sunflower with mean value 1.5000±0.5000 and 1.5000±0.8660 respectively.
  Nazia Suleman , Muhammad Aslam and Asia Riaz
  To evaluate the resistance of nine wheat cultivars (Rawal 87, Chakwal 86, Inqilab 91, Khyber 87, Sariab 92, Bakhtawar, Faisalabad 85, C 591 and Pak 81) against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus,three tests (Free choice, Confinement and Antixenosis) were conducted in the Department of Entomology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, during 1997-99, using Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications in each test. When compared with Chakwal 86 (the susceptible check/standard), C 591 was proved to be partially resistant under all three tests. Khyber 87 was found to be susceptible to highly susceptible. Pak 81 was found susceptible to partially resistant, while Rawal 87, Inqilab 91, Sariab 92, Bakhtawar and Faisalabad 85 were not significantly different from the standard (Chakwal 86). The results revealed that there was variability in different wheat cultivars against Sitophilus oryzae and this variability could be incorporated in evolving wheat varieties resistant to insects so as to minimize the dependence on insecticides/fumigants for the control of insects in godowns/warehouses.
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