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Articles by Muhammad Ashfaq
Total Records ( 18 ) for Muhammad Ashfaq
  Abdus Salam Khan , Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Azeem Asad
  Correlation between some production traits were computed for 15 wheat varieties/lines. Path coefficient analysis were used to determine the direct and indirect effect of different characters on grain yield. A positive and significant correlation was observed between number of tillers per plant and peduncle length both at genotypic and phenotypic levels. There were highly significant correlation between spike length and grain yield per plant at phenotypic levels and positive significant at genotypic level. Path analysis showed that number of tillers per plant and spike length are the characters which contribute largely to grain yield.
  Muhammad Ashfaq , Abdul Saboor and Munawar Hussain
  Cotton, a cash crop, being major source of foreign exchange and domestic earnings takes a significant status in the development of economy of Pakistan. Punjab province accounts for major contribution in cotton production and it has shown a tremendous increase in its production from 735 thousand bales in 1947-48 to 6628 thousand bales in 1988-99. During the same span of 52 years, area under cotton has increased from 2217 thousand acres to 5641.03 thousand acres with 154.44 percent increase over the period. Per acre cotton yield has increased by 235 percent i.e. 1.6 maunds 1947-48 to 5.36 maunds in1998-99. The myopic view taken by the statistical tools indicate that percent contribution to change in total production of cotton owes a great extent to per acre yield than the area shown under cotton crop particularly during the last three decades. Though cotton production has shown a considerable increase but significant level of potential yet remains to be exploited by increasing per acre yield and more area under cultivation.
  Muhammad Ashfaq , Abdul Saboor and Munawar Hussain
  This article reviews the Irrigation Management as a measure to mitigate various dimensions of poverty, particularly prevailing in the rural segments of society. Irrigation plays a crucial role to fight against poverty and thus has been the largest recipients of public agricultural investment in the developing world. Over the last 30 years, billions of dollars have been spent to assure water supplies, to raise yields and to improve rural livelihoods. In Pakistan irrigation charges amounted to only five percent of the crop expenses. Communities at the tail end areas are victims of water scarcity. National Drainage Program project would directly benefit tenant farmers, small holders and tail enders in the form of improved availability of irrigation and drainage facilities, efficient delivery services and reduced costs.
  Muhammad Ashfaq and Sultan Ali Adil
  Government wheat price policy in Pakistan affects both the supply and demand of this staple food. The wheat market has been established in a particular idiosyncratic manner in Pakistan, and a thorough appraisal of policy needs to take this into account. This paper uses simulation experiments with an econometric model to quantify the producer loss, consumer gain, government budget cost and overall efficiency loss that occurred due to government pricing interventions in the wheat market of Pakistan over the period 1971-1996. In the simulation it was assumed that the domestic price would have been increased by 50 per cent of the difference between the procurement price and the import parity price. The results of the study show that the net welfare loss to the economy of Pakistan was more than 415 million Rupees per year. The means annual welfare losses were 1.58 percent of real GDP from the agricultural sector for the comparison of price policy that would have been increased by 50 per cent of the difference between the procurement price and the import parity price with the import parity price.
  Waqar A. Jehangir , Muhammad Ashfaq , Asghar Ali and Naeem Sarwar
  The agricultural economy of Pakistan grew at a rate of 4.5 percent annually during the last one decade. There were various factors responsible for this low growth rate including agricultural credit. It is imperative that credit and services should be provided to poor farmers so that they can emerge out of their poverty trap through financially viable and productive activities. This paper used econometric model to evaluate the effectiveness of credit disbursement in income generation activities of poor farmers. For the purpose of collecting information from farmers, three villages of tehsil Samundri, district Faisalabad were randomly selected. From each village then twenty respondents were selected randomly, making the total sample of sixty households. The estimated equation showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the amount of credit and the total income. It was also observed that the major constraints faced by farmers in getting agriculture credit were lack of guidance, difficulty in the preparation of passbook by the revenue department, high interest rate and bribery.
  Muhammad Ashfaq , Waqar A. Jehangir and Muhammad Younas
  In Pakistan 34 percent or 49 million people are poor. Poverty has increased significantly in the 1990`s. Inadequate resource allocation towards education, health care and rural development has been adding more number in the pool of impoverished and poverty stricken. The population of country is a double-faced phenomenon. It is an asset and a viral factor in the development process on the one hand and a rapid population growth can hamper development on the other. Credit is an important instrument of acquiring command over the use of working capital, fixed capital and consumption goods. The present study was aimed to assess the impact of the micro-credit intervention by PRSP for micro enterprise development. The results showed that PRSP`s micro-credit program had significant impact on people belonging to very poor category.
  Muhammad Ashfaq , Abida Nasreen and Ghulam Mustafa Cheema
  A comprehensive study was carried out on mass rearing of Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephen) (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera) with the objective to rear the cannibalistic larvae in a simplest and economical way and to wipeout the use of anesthesia (carbon dioxide), vacuum sucker in adult handling and other problems viz. cleaning and sanitation of adult rearing cage, ventilation and illumination in the cage, use of chemical for harvesting of eggs on black organdy and diapause phenomena of adults due to humidity below 35 percent. The difficulties in field releases of the voracious predator viz. reduced viability of eggs during chemical harvesting, ill defined field applications and high perdition of stalk less eggs in the field were also target of the research studied.
  Muhammad Aslam and Muhammad Ashfaq
  To observe the incidence and damage of Agrotis ipsilon on different sunflower genotypes (Hysun-777, XF-263, Award, T-562, 9706, 9705, 9707, PSF-025, Parsun-1, 1435, JH1 99S, JH2 99S, PNSF1 and Hysun-33) a field experiment was conducted under UGC/UAAR Sunflower Project.Sunflower genotypes, 9706, JH2 99S and PNSF 1 showed somewhat partial resistance to A ipsilon. XF 263 and 9707 showed somewhat more susceptibility than Hysun-33.All other genotypes did not differ from Hysun-33 and thus were susceptible to A. ipsilon. The number of larvae of A. ipsilon and damage done by them were significantly and positively correlated. The genotypes which showed some resistance to the attack of A. ipsilon could be included in the programmes evolving genotypes resistant to the attack of this pest and thus pollution problems due to heavy use of insecticides could be minimized.
  Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Aslam
  Field studies were carried for response of different insect pests to some sunflower genotypes and their correlation with yield component. The most important species attacking on the fourteen sunflower genotypes were Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennad.), Surface grasshopper (Chrotogonous spp.) and Green leafhopper (Empoasca spp.). As for as the infestation of Bemisia tabaci is concerned, the sunflower genotypes 9705 was found partially resistant whereas JH299S and JH199S were partially susceptible. The sunflower genotypes Parsun-1, PSF-025, Hysun-777, Award and 9707 were found intermediately susceptible. The sunflower germplasms XF-263, T-562 and PNSF-1 were susceptible. The genotypes 1435 and 9706 were considered as highly susceptible. The results described for Empoasca spp. concluded that the genotypes of sunflower 9705 and JH299S were found partially resistant whereas JH199S and Hysun-777 were considered as partially susceptible. The sunflower germplasms T-562, XF-263, PNSF1, 1435 and PSF-025 were taken as partially susceptible. The genotypes Parsun-1 and 9706 were found susceptible whereas 9707 and Award were highly susceptible. The genotypes 9705, 9707 and JH299S were found partially susceptible against Chrotogonous spp. whereas JH199S, PSF-025 and 1435 were declared as intermediately susceptible as compared to Hysun-33. PNSF1, Hysun-777 and 9706 were susceptible and the Parsun-1, T-562, XF-263 and Award were taken as highly susceptible. The genotypes 9705, JH299S, 9707 were partially susceptible against Chrotogonous damage as compared to Hysun-33 whereas PSF-025 was taken as intermediately susceptible. The sunflower genotypes 1435, PNSF1 and Hysun-777 were found susceptible and when Hysun-33 was compared with the sunflower genotypes 9706, Parsun-1, T-562, XF-263 and Award, these were highly susceptible. A negative correlation was observed between the population of pests and yield of sunflower genotypes. The correlation between percent plot damage and Chrotogonous population was found positive which understand that with increase in pest population, the damage was also increased.
  Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Aslam
  The resistance of different sunflower genotypes against some insect pests was investigated in the field. Fourteen sunflower genotypes were screened against Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphids), Nezara viridula (L.) (Green stink bug) and Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thrips). In case of Aphids, the sunflower genotype 9705 was partially resistant whereas JH299S, JH199S, Hysun-777, T-562 and PSF-025 were found partially susceptible genotypes. The germplasms XF-263 and 1435 were taken as intermediately susceptible. The susceptible genotypes were PNSF-1 and 9706 when compared with standard germplasm. Parsun-1 and Award were found highly susceptible to Aphids population. In case of Nezara viridula, conclusion was made that the sunflower germplasms 9705, JH299S and JH199S were partially resistant against this pest as compare to Hysun-33 whereas Hysun-777 was found partially susceptible. PSF-025, T-562 and 1435 were declared as intermediately susceptible. PNSF-1 was susceptible. The sunflower germplasms XF-263, Parsun-1, 9706, 9707 and Award were taken as highly susceptible having highest number of pest as compare to Hysun-33. Results of Thrips tabaci concluded that 9706 and JH299S were partially resistant whereas XF-263 and Award were found highly susceptible to pest as compare to Hysun-33. The genotypes 9707, JH199S and Parsun-1 were partially susceptible to pest population. Hysun-777, T-562, PSF-025 and 1435 were taken as intermediately susceptible against thrips whereas PNSF-1 and 9706 were found susceptible. A negative correlation was also found between pest population and the yield of sunflower genotypes.
  Muhammad Ashfaq and Khawaja Farooq- Ahmad
  The present work regarding the overwintering population of maize stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) at larval stage was conducted in order to determine degree of overwintering population and the level of infestation of this pest at different localities of Azad Kashmir. Off 1796 stubbles of maize, present findings showed that over all high population of C. partellus (29.1%) larvae was recorded from locality Chota Gala while the lower (18.73%) was from Rawalakot locality. Whereas greater population (27.77%) of overwintering was found on the stubbles of maize genotype “Kashmir Gold” than “Sarhad White” (20.75%). A significant difference in overwintering population was found among all the studied localities. The percentage of infestation (on the basis of exit hole on stubbles) caused by C. partellus was significantly (P<0.001) high (27.77%) on “Kashmir Gold” than on the “Sarhad White” (15.99%) in all the studied areas. No clear relationship was found between the stem thickness and the overwintering population of maize stem borer or its infestation.
  Muhammad Fayyaz Khan , Mohammad Farid Khan , Muhammad Ashfaq and Gul Majid Khan
  The objective of this study was to synthesize, characterize and evaluate biological and pharmacological activities of acetyl-substitutive derivative of Tranexamic acid (T.A) and their copper (II) complexes. N-Acetyltranexamic acid (A-2), Di-Tranexamate Diaquo Copper (II) (C-1) and Di-N-Acetyltranexamate Diaquo Copper (II) (C-3) were synthesized, using novel and reproducible procedures. These compounds were characterized using techniques like FTIR, Mass Spectroscopy and FT 1H NMR. Different methods, reported in literature, have successfully been applied for qualitative and structural characterization of these compounds. C-1 showed unidentate bonding of carboxylic group to copper (II) while C-3 indicated bidentate bonding of carboxylate group to copper (II). Bioactivities of the compounds were carried out and the compounds exhibited excellent anti-tumor, significant analgesic and antifungal activities, leading to the conclusion that the derivatives and the complexes are more effective than their parent drug.
  Muhammad Aslam and Muhammad Ashfaq
  Relationships in anthesis, maturity and yield of different sunflower genotypes were studied in fourteen sunflower genotypes. It was observed that in different genotypes of sunflower there were variations in days to anthesis and maturity and on an average basis the anthesis in different genotypes initiated in about 8.3571 ± 1.0082 weeks after sowing of crop (34th week of 2000) and the genotypes matured after an average of 14 ± 0.8771 weeks after sowing. This period needed for maturity falls in the range of less than 100-120 days generally needed for the maturity of this crop. There were variations in the yield of different genotypes and the genotypes were also evaluated on the basis of this component. The highest yield obtained was of the genotype 9705 (1711.11 kg ha -1) and the lowest of XF 263 (266.66 kg ha -1). On an average basis, the yield was concluded as 855.0686 kg ha -1 and this yield falls in the range generally recorded from the rainfed sunflower crops. These studies concluded positive and significant correlation in weeks to anthesis, maturity and yield at 0.01 and 0.05 levels and the former two influenced the sunflower grain yield positively and significantly.
  Muhammad Fayyaz Khan , Mohammad Farid Khan , Muhammad Ashfaq and Gul Majid Khan
  The objective of this investigation was to synthesize and characterize some substitutive derivatives of Tranexamic Acid (TA) and their copper (II) complexes. N-Phthaloyltranexamic Acid (A-1), N-Acetyltranexamic Acid (A-2), Di-Tranexamate Diaquo Copper (II) (C-1), Di-N-Phthaloyltranexamate Diaquo Copper (II) (C-2) and Di-N-Acetyltranexamate Diaquo Copper (II) (C-3) were synthesized, using novel and reproducible procedures. These compounds were characterized by exploiting the techniques such as Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy (MS) and FT 1H NMR. Different methods, reported in the literature, have successfully been applied for qualitative and structural characterization of these compounds. C-1 showed unidentate bonding of carboxylic group to copper (II) while C-2 and C-3 indicated bidentate bonding of carboxylate group to copper (II).
  Muhammad Azeem Basit and Muhammad Ashfaq
  Silkworm larvae feeding on mulberry leaves supplemented with the best optimum dosed solution (0.1% P+ 0.3% K + 0.1 % Ca + 0.2 % N and 0.15 % Mn) proved better in terms of increased food consumption, co-efficient of utilization, larval weight, length and silk yield. It is concluded from the present study, the minerals supplementation had a positive influence not only on the yield components but the life processes too. Thus it is evident from the experimental verification references that treatment T11 emerged as the best one, where mulberry leaves were treated with 0.1 per cent P + 0.1 per cent Ca + 0.2 per cent N + 0.3 per cent K & 0.15 Mn leading to develop a stronger lot of silkworm larvae and silk yield as well.
  Abida Nasreen , Ghulam Mustafa and Muhammad Ashfaq
  We tested some commercial insecticides in laboratory for contact toxicity to Chrysoperla carnea (Stephen) to evaluate potential compatibilities in integrated pest management programme. A standard deposit of 2 mg/cm2 of field recommended concentration of each insecticide viz. Abamectin, Bacillus thuringiensis, chlorfenapyr, endosulfan, indoxacarb, profenofos and spinosad were coated as inner lining of glass vials. The larvae of C. carnea at 2nd instar from the laboratory stocks were exposed to the insecticide deposits. All the concentrations were found safer (caused mortality < 50%) to the larvae tested except two, indoxacarb and profenofos (mortality caused > 90%) within 24 h. Mortalities of the test insects within 6 h of treatments were recorded 100% for profenofos and it was 65% for indoxicab. All the larvae in both indoxacarb and profenofos were dead recorded after 24 h. The both toxic insecticides were suggested for higher tire testing in semifield and field conditions.
  Ghulam Mustafa , Abida Nasreen , Muhammad Ashfaq and Qaiser Ali
  Experiments were conducted to record the larval population and damage caused by Helicoverpa armigera on four cotton cultivars viz., NIAB-krishma (V1), FH-900 (V2), CIM-446 (V3) and BH-118 (V4), sown on four different dates, viz., 25-April (D1), 10-May (D2), 25-May (D3) and 9-June (D4). Mean population and damage caused by the larvae of first generation of H. armigera was non significant for all the cultivars. While, it was found significant, when recorded in relation to sowing dates. Interaction between plant genotype and sowing dates showed that early planting dates supported the high larval population and percent fruit injury by H. armigera on each of the cultivar.
  Muhammad Ishfaque , Muhammad Ashfaq and Ali H. Sayyed
  A comprehensive study was carried out on the effect of power (batteries) on the droplets with the objectives to minimise dose rate and maximise mortality, by avoiding the wastage of pesticides. Droplet distributions were obtained over a range of rotation speeds by using different nozzles. The data obtained using various batteries indicate that the speed was directly proportional to numbers of batteries used while the droplet size was inversely proportion to the speed of disc. With increasing problems in controlling some cotton pests, particularly those on the under-surface of leaves, these results indicate that it may now be worth re-exploring the issue of using charged sprays.
 
 
 
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