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Articles by Muhammad Arshad
Total Records ( 15 ) for Muhammad Arshad
  Rizwana Aleem Qureshi , Mushtaq Ahmad and Muhammad Arshad
  The study was confined to the 3 medicinally important species of the genus Artemisia Linn. The morphological features, such as, plant size, leaf-shape and size, petiole length, the inflorescence type and the details of capitulum, i.e., the disc and ray florets were studied from the herbarium specimens preserved in the Quaid-I-Azam University Herbarium. Many properties and the uses of these species were determined. The studies on morphological characters revealed that the characters like, heads either homogamous or heterogamous and the receptacle either glabrous or hairy, number of the florets per head were taxonomically most important to differentiate these species. Among these species it was observed that A. absinthium Linn. was mostly used against liver diseases.
  Abdul Rashid , Habib Ahmad Saeed , Lal Hussain Akhtar , Sabir Zameer Siddiqi and Muhammad Arshad
  Effects of five insecticides i.e. Chlorpyrifos, (2500 ml ha-1), Endosulfan (2500 ml ha-1), Indoxicarb (425 ml ha-1), Profenophos (2500 ml ha-1) and Spinosad (200 ml ha-1) alongwith untreated check against gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner) were investigated during Rabi season, 2001-2002. Chickpea variety Bittle-98 was used as a test variety. The plots were sprayed at pod formation stage followed 2nd spray after 15 days. Results revealed that a varying degree of control was achieved in different insecticidal treatments in terms of decreased pest population and pod damage resulting in increased seed yield. Among the various insecticides tested, Spinosad (Tracer) and Indoxicarb (Steward) were highly effective against gram pod borer while Endosulfan was found to be the least effective insecticide.
  Abdul Rashid , Habib Ahmad Saeed , Lal Hussain Akhtar , Sabir Zameer Siddiqi and Muhammad Arshad
  The present study was carried out to screen 11 advance strains and one approved variety of chickpea (Bittle-98) for pod damage caused by gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) under field conditions of Bahawalpur during Rabi season, 2001-2002. The results indicated that pod damage ranged from 9.38 to 21.49% in the test strains. Most susceptible strain was BRC-4 with pod damage of 21.49% while BRC-1 was least susceptible with pod damage of 9.38% with corresponding seed yields of 0.137 and 0.333 kg plot-1 among the 11 strains tested.
  Ejaz Ahmed , Muhammad Arshad , Mushtaq Ahmad , Majid Saeed and Muhammad Ishaque
  Ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in Galliyat areas of Tehsil Abbotabad (NWFP) Pakistan. Being apart from city the local people preferably use medicinal plants for their common ailments by traditional methods. Galliyat is dressed up with a wide range of medicinal flora. Indigenous plants are interactly associated to the culture and traditions of local peoples. So ethnopharmacological survey yielded interesting results. The survey comprised plant-collection trips, interviews and meetings with local people and rural herbalists. In a total of 41 wild plant species, belonging to 40 genera of 33 families were used by local inhabitants, for medicinal purposes.
  Lal Hussain Akhtar , Abdullah , Sabir Zameer Siddiqi , Manzoor Hussain and Muhammad Arshad
  Studies were e conducted on forty one chickpea genotypes from Spain, India, Syria and Egypt to evaluate their performance under local conditions, their subsequent use in breeding programme and to establish a selection criterion for varietal improvement in chickpea. The genotype FLIP 97-149C exhibited high physiological efficiency with maximum harvest index of 41.5% followed by FLIP 97-28C (39.1%). Maximum economic yield was found to be 165g for FLIP 97-149C followed by Sel 93TH24483 (139g). Biological yield was maximum for the genotype FLIP 97-95 C (950g) followed by FLIP 93-260C, FLIP 96-90C, FLIP 97-116C AND Sel 93TH24483 (500g each). Biological yield and harvest index showed negative correlation (r2=-0.025) while economic yield and harvest index were positively correlated (r2 = +0.698) and economic yield (r2 = +0.598) and harvest index (r2 = +0.398). The results suggested that the yield of chickpea could be improved by improving the harvest index.
  Khadija Riaz , Malik Sikander Hayat Khiyal and Muhammad Arshad
  In this study we discuss about an application of graph Isomorphism. If we look at two unequal matrices of undirected graphs, we cannot say either the graphs of these matrices are isomorphic or not isomorphic. It is because the two matrices may look different even the graphs are isomorphic. In this study, by using our algorithm of Graph Isomorphism it can be told about the given unequal matrices that the matrices have isomorphic graphs or not. In the case the graphs are isomorphic; the given unequal matrices are made equal by moving the vertices of a matrix according to the corresponding vertices in other graph.
  Muhammad Arshad and Mahboob Akhtar
  All weed management strategies under study reduced weed growth and increased yield and yield parameters of maize to a varying degree. Maximum grain yields of 4.54, 4.44 and 4.41 tones ha-1 were obtained in plots treated with pre-emergence application of Dichlor 50EC (acetochlor) @2.5L ha-1 + post-emergence application of Aim + Atratox Copack {Aim 40DF(carfentrazone ethyl) @ 0.05 kg ha-1 + Atratox 38EC (atrazine) @ 0.75 L ha-1}, post- emergence application of Aim + Atratox Copack + one hoeing and pre-emergence application of Dichlor + one hoeing, respectively. These treatments were statistically at par to each other. In terms of monitory gain, maximum net benefit of Rs. 27638.29 was obtained from the crop plants which were treated with post-emergence application of Aim -l-Atratox Copack +one hoeing.
  Zahir Ahmad Zahir , Muhammad Ateeq ur Rehman Malik and Muhammad Arshad
  Enzymes are biologically produced proteinic substances having specific activation in which they combine with their substrates in such a stereoscopic position that they cause changes in the electronic configuration around certain susceptible bonds. Their significance in all spheres including soil, is worth tested and reported. In plant nutrition their role cannot be substituted by any other substance and its function is quite pragmatic in solubilizing and dissolving the much needed food in ionic forms for the very survival of animal and plant kingdom. World over, innumerable researchers have contributed their efforts in exploring enzymes. This paper reviews some of the important factors affecting its behaviour, reactions in soil environment, correlation with other enzymes and soil properties, preceded by its historical perspective and sources of production.
  Azeem Khalid , Muhammad Arshad , Zahir Ahmad Zahir and Muhammad Khalid
  Thirty-one cultures of bacteria (W1, W2, ... W31) were isolated from the rhizosphere of different varieties of wheat and twenty-eight (R1, R2 ... R28) from the rhizosphere of rice growing at different sites. They were tested in the liquid medium and in soil to evaluate their relative efficacy for auxin biosynthesis by colorimetry. Among different rhizobacterial isolates, W9 showed significantly higher auxin production in liquid culture both in the presence and absence of its precursor, L-tryptophan (L-TRP). Four isolates showing maximum auxin production from each crop were selected. They were further tested for their ability to produce L-TRP (6.0 g kg-1 soil)-derived auxins both in non-sterilized and sterilized soils at 7.0 pH, 35oC temperature and 48 hours incubation period under static and shaking (150 rev. min-1) conditions. L-Tryptophan-derived auxin biosynthesis was also measured by supplementing with glucose (6.0 g kg-1 soil) under similar conditions. Results revealed that isolates W11 and W9 showed maximum auxin production at 6.0 g L-TRP kg-1 soil which was 66.3 and 27.5 μg g-1 soil in non-sterilized and sterilized soils, respectively, under static conditions. However, auxin synthesis at shaking condition was doubled to that produced under static environment. Rice isolates R20 and R27 were most active in producing auxins when soils were supplemented with glucose along with L-TRP. Glucose application had also positive effect on L-TRP-derived auxins over L-TRP alone.
  Muhammad Arshad and Audil Rashid
  A greenhouse study was conducted on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Roma) to monitor the effects of salt (NaCl) stress on dry matter yield and nitrogen (total and 15N) uptake. The significant difference in the dry matter production, total-N, and 15N content of plants, was first noted on day 15 of the 15N treatment, and this difference continued to the end of the study period. Moreover, differences in both the parameters i.e., dry matter production and 15N uptake, also appeared in the last (30 days) harvest between the two saline treatments.
  Muhammad Haneef , Muhammad Arshad , Sajjad Haidar , Muhammad Afzal , Muhammad Rashid and Zia-ul-Qamar
  The flowering and fruiting behaviour of some commercial varieties of cotton was studied for proper planning of insect pest management and application of other inputs like fertilizer and irrigation. The results revealed that total flowering and boll formation period was longer in early maturing varieties than in late maturing. Boll formation period of each variety did not exactly coincide in different years. The varieties CIM-482, Karishama and CIM-109 produced more number of flowers but due to higher shedding percentage their total mature bolls per plant were on lower side. CIM-446 and CIM-473 completed 75-90% of their flowering up to 1st week of September while most of others completed their maximum flowering up to the week ends on 23rd September. CIM-446 and CIM-473 completed their maximum boll formation in the week of 15th to 30th September. Boll opening started slowly in earlier weeks and the earliest was observed in genotype CIM-473. Varieties CIM-240, CIM-109 and CIM-482 had maximum shedding during the week ends on 31st August and earlier September. From these observations it was concluded that variety CIM-446 and genotype CIM-473 were early maturing with lower shedding percentage and maximum boll retention ability as compared to other varieties under Multan conditions.
  Majid Saeed , Muhammad Arshad , Mushtaq Ahmad , Ejaz Ahmad and Muhammad Ishaque
  The present study was conducted to document the traditional use of medicinal plants as indigenous recipes for the treatment of human and domestic animals. As the people of the area are poor and living far away from the city, so they rely mainly on medicinal plants for various diseases. Flora of the area constitutes a large number of medicinal plants including trees, herbs and shrubs. The present study comprised on data collection from local reliable people of the area by interviewing them in exploring valuable medicinal plants and traditional knowledge about them. In a total of 28 wild plant species belonging to 26 genera and 24 families were used traditionally for medicinal purposes.
  Samina Fateh , Muhammad Arshad , Muhammad Azhar Naeem and Muhammad Imran Latif
  The present study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of selected areas and to compare the different methods of organic matter determination. Soil samples were collected from different areas of Rawalpindi and Fateh Jang for the estimation of soil texture, soil pH, electrical conductivity, saturation percentage and available sodium and potassium contents and for the comparison of routine method of organic matter determination with the active organic matter determination method. A total of 24 composite soil samples were collected from six locations, Fateh Jang, Adiayla, Taxila, Swan, Kahuta and Gujar Khan. These soil samples were analyzed. All the samples were loam in texture. Soil pH values of all less than 8.0 and electrical conductivity of all soil samples was normal except Taxila which showed very high salt deposition. Available sodium was satisfactory while in available potassium, 42% samples were satisfactory and 58% were adequate. Comparison of both methods of organic matter estimation is not a true presentation of organic matter contents of soil.
  Faisal Hafeez , Muhammad Jalal Arif , Muhammad Dildar Gogi , Khurram Zia , Haider Karar and Muhammad Arshad
  A survey was conducted in cotton belt of different areas of Punjab to know the present situation of the entomophagous insects through out the year. The following selective localities of Punjab were: Vehari, Multan, Melsi, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and Sahiwal. Maximum average population in Vehari Geocoris was recorded followed by Orius and Spiders. In Multan Orius was recorded followed by Spiders, Geocoris, ants, predatory mite and Chrysopa sp. In Melsi Spiders was recorded followed by Orius, Geocoris, Ants, Predatory mite, Chrysopa sp. In Rahim Yar Khan Orius was recorded followed by Spiders, Geocoris, Ants, Predatory mite, Trichogramma sp. In Bahawalpur Geocoris was recorded followed by Orius, Ants, Spiders, Chrysopa sp., Predatory mite. In Sahiwal Geocoris was recorded followed by Spiders, Orius, Ants, Predatory mite, Trichogramma sp.
  Altaf Hussain Tariq , Saeed Ahmad , Muhammad Arshad Hussain , Lal Hussain Akhtar , Muhammad Arshad and Sabir Zameer Siddiqi
  38 isogenic lines were studied for the presence of wheat leaf rust virulence during the years 1997-98 to 2001-2002 at Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur. Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25 and Lr36 were free of reaction whereas Lr3ka, Lr12, Lr13 and Lr17 exhibited resistant reaction. 18 lines (Lr1, Lr2a, Lr2c, Lr3, L3bg, Lr8, Lr10, Lr11, Lr14a, Lr14b, Lr16, Lr20, Lr21, Lr22b, Lr23, Lr26, Lr29 and Lr30) gave high population of virulence and exhibited 20S-100S reaction through out the study period. Lr18 and Lr34 gave improvement in reaction, which may be due to decline in their corresponding virulence. Lr34 is an adult plant resistant gene and can be exploited in combination with other genes. The high frequency of leaf rust virulence for Lr26 was recorded consistently during 4 year because the wheat varieties carrying Lr26 gene remained in the field covering vast area throughout the world. This gene in combination with other genes is effective against prevailing leaf rust pathogens in most of the cultivars in Pakistan.
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