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Articles by Muhammad Akhtar
Total Records ( 4 ) for Muhammad Akhtar
  Abdul Ghaffar , Muhammad Akbar Khan , Muhammad Akhtar , Muhammad Anwar Qureshi , Umar Farooq and M. Nazir
  A well-preserved mandibular ramus having M2-3 is collected from Chinji formation of the Siwalik Hills of Pakistan. The fossil material is collected from the Chinji formation. The Chinji Formation is a type locality (Lat. 32°41’N: Long. 72°22’E) named after Chinji village situated in Chakwal district. The diagnostic features exhibited by the specimen reveal that it belongs to a large species of family Cervidae that is Cervus sivalensis. This dental material of the family Cervidae is reported from late Miocene of the Chinji formation (14.2-11.2 ma). Prior to this, the family Cervidae is reported from Pliocene to Pleistocene (Dhokpathan-Soan formations) only in the Siwaliks of Pakistan. This finding extends the range of the family Cervidae in the Siwaliks of Pakistan from Pleistocene to Miocene times and is a new clue for the evolutionary study of the family Cervidae.
  Muhammad Akbar Khan , Abdul Ghaffar , Umar Farooq and Muhammad Akhtar
  The Siwalik formations of northern Pakistan consist of (fluvial) deposits of ancient rivers that were formed from the early Miocene up to the late Pliocene. The tertiary continental deposits of the Siwaliks are highly fossiliferous with a diverse array of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates in which ruminants are fairly abundant. The rich Siwalik fossil record presents a detailed history of the prehistoric mammals of the Indian Subcontinent. In this research it was analyzed individual well-sampled sites to study the past ruminant community. The Siwalik fossil record becomes increasingly informative for diverse research questions in paleobiology as a result of its growing and robust data set. The fossils from Pakistan may also document the first appearance and subsequent radiation of giraffes and bovids, two groups that dominate the late neogene (tertiary) as well as the modern herbivore faunas. Throughout the Siwalik formations, the ruminants are by far the most abundant mammal group. The number of ruminant species, as recorded in the tertiary hills of the Siwaliks is clearly greater than that observed in most ecosystems today, which probably indicates overall greater species richness than is typically present. Today, the ruminants constitute the largest group of ungulates, with more than 190 species and its distribution is widespread in all continents except Australia and Antarctica.
  Abdul Ghaffar and Muhammad Akhtar
  A well preserved first right lower molar from the Tertiary rocks of Pakistan is described from Padhri (Middle Siwaliks) District Jhelum, the Punjab province, Pakistan. It essentially differs from the known material of the genus Sivapanthera both in morphology and size. The name Sivapathera padhriensis is being proposed to this new addition.
  Vicente Espinosa Hernandez , Muhammad Akhtar , Alejandro Baeza Reyes , Abdul Mujeeb Qazi and Roberto Nunez Escobar
  The phosphorus incubation was conducted for 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days in a Completely Randomized Design with three fertilizer treatments Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) Phosphate Rock (PR) and Bone Material (BM) applied @ 40 and 80 mg kg-1 in an alkaline calcareous soil. Generally maximum phosphorus was available at d0(day zero) and decreased with increase in incubation time. At day 0, the mean available phosphorus was 42.5% in TSP treatment followed by 5.5 and 4.8% P solubility in phosphate rock and bone material treatment. At day 90, only 10.12% phosphorus was available in TSP treatment followed by 0.0% phosphorus availability in PR and BM treatments. The minimum TSP sorption was observed at d0 and increased with the increase in incubation time. The results indicated a rapid initial sorption of TSP and the decrease in the sorption intensity with time. The sorption saturation (maximum sorption) was attained at 14 days incubation of 80 mg P kg-1 as TSP. The increase in incubation time did not further affect P fixation of upper TSP level however the lower level (40 mg P kg-1) decreased constantly up to 90 days incubation.
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