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Articles by Mohammad Rahbar
Total Records ( 6 ) for Mohammad Rahbar
  Sobhan Ghafourian , Nourkhoda Sadeghifard , Zamberi bin Sekawi , Vasantha Kumari Neela , Mariana Nor Shamsudin , Reza Mohebi , Mohammad Rahbar and Mohammad Raftari
  Problem statement: Gram-negative pathogens harboring ESBLs have caused numerous outbreaks of infections and are becoming an increasing therapeutic problem in many countries. The incidence of ESBL-producing strains among clinical isolates has been steadily increasing over the past years resulting in limitations of therapeutic option. The focus of this study was to examine the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp, investigate the susceptibility of Klebsiellae spp producing ESBLs towards non-beta-lactam antibiotics in the different seasons, identify the various clonal types of ESBL-producing K.pneumoniae and detect the dominant ESBL clonal types. Approach: Clinical isolates of Klebsiella spp were identified during the period March 2007-April 2008. ESBLs production identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. MLST was performed for dissemination of ESBLs producing K. pneumoniae. Results: The findings showed that 51.6% of K.pneumoniae were produces ESBLs. 35.8, 21.2 and 38.7% of K. pneumoniae producing ESBLs were resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazol, respectively. It was found that 40 and 27.3% of K.oxytoca producing ESBLs were resistant to cotrimoxazol and amikacin, respectively. The findings reflected that ESBLs existed in 73% of K. oxytoca. The results showed that the frequency of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M due to K.pneumoniae producing ESBLs were 87.5, 12.4 and 24.8%, respectively. Of the eleven K. oxytoca producing ESBLs, 100% blaSHV were obtained. Based on the nucleotide variations of the five genetic loci, twenty-five different STs could be identified among thirty K.pneumoniae producing ESBLs isolates. Among the STs shared by multiple isolates, the most frequently encountered were 14, 16 and ST18. Conclusion: In conclusion, the percentage of K.oxytoca producing ESBLs was higher than K.pneumoniae producing ESBLs. Generally, K.penomoniae produces more ESBLs in winter and fall than in the other seasons.
  Mohammad Rahbar , Soheila Hekmat Yazdi and Rogieh Saburian
  External quality assessment is one of the important ways for assessment of competency in microbiology laboratories. The aim of this study was to compare external quality assessment results among hospital microbiology laboratories both in governmental and private sectors located in Tehran and districts. Two unknown species of bacteria including Burkelderia cepacia and Staphylococus epidermidis were distributed among 121 laboratories including 79 governmental and 42 private sector microbiology laboratories. We asked for identification of both microorganisms and susceptibility testing for S. epidermidis. We obtained answer from 106 microbiology laboratories. Nearly all laboratories produced correct answer for identification and susceptibility testing of S. epidermid. However microbiology laboratories in both sector had problems for identification of B. cepcia Governmental related hospital microbiology laboratories in comparison of private sectors produced relatively correct answer for identification of B. cepacia. It is concluded that in present country there are difficulties for identification of some microorganism in microbiology laboratories especially in private sectors.
  Mohammad Rahbar , Parisa Islami and Mahnaz` Saremi
 

Four laboratory methods including, E-test MIC, Oxacillin screen agar, manitol salt agar plus oxacillin and CHROMagar MRSA were compared for detection of methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). CHROMagar MRSA had a high sensitivity and specificity comparing to conventional E-test method. Sensitivity and specificity by manitol salt agar was 95 and 100%, respectively, while oxacillin screening agar method had 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity.

  Mohammad Rahbar and Masoud Hajia
  The incidence of inducible clindamycin resistance were studied in Milad Hospital of Tehran, Iran. Of 175 isolates of S. aureus 17(9.7%) isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance. Of 17 inducible clindamycin isolates of S. aureus, 11 strains were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 6 isolates were methicillin susceptible S. aureus) (MSSA). All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linozolide. We conclude that it is necessary to perform D-test for detection of inducible clindamycin in staphylococci in routine laboratory practices.
  Maryam Jahanshahi , Saeed Azad , Bahram Aslanbeigi and Mohammad Rahbar
  Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is an important cause of urinary tract infection. Adherence to uroepithelial cells is a first step for colonization of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine effects of sub Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics and antibodies on the adherence of this organism at in vitro condition. Seven strains of E. coli isolated from patients with acute pyelonephritis were subject of the study. MICs of trimethoprim, suphamethoxazole, sulphadiazine and ampicillin for these strains were determined and effect of these antibiotics at the ½ and ¼ MIC on the adhesion of E. coli to human urinary tract epithelial cells were studied. Trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole and sulphadiazine at ½ and ¼ of the MICs decreased the adherence of four out of five E. coli strains tested whereas combinations of the compounds did not potentiate the effect. Ampicillin caused a similar effect. Specific pili-antibodies as well as gamma globulin and milk inhibited the adherence but did not work synergistically with ampicillin. In conclusion, present preliminary investigation gives further support to the theory that the effect of sub inhibitory concentration of antibiotics on the growth of bacteria may prevent their attachment to urinary epithelial cells.
  Mohammad Rahbar , Hamed Yahyazade and Rana Amini
  The researchers tried to use the result of multiple markers assays in maternal serum to establish a mathematical method for calculating the risk of carrying a fetus with Down syndrome. This screening method is dependent on distribution of few parameters. We investigated the effect of different set of parameters on screening system. The most popular protocol for triple marker screening of Down syndrome is based on multivariate gaussian distribution. This study has been applied in a private medical laboratory. The result of different set of distribution of parameters on efficacy and reliability of system is investigated by graphical display and simulation by monte carlo method. In some cases, different sets of parameters in protocols make calculated risk inappropriately different. In some ranges of biochemical markers, the behavior of system violates their general trends on risk calculation. We found inherent error in models. This could be explained by interaction and value of distribution of parameters. We show effect of distribution of parameters in mathematical model, estimate efficacy of system and also emphasize on quality of parameters.
 
 
 
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