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Articles by Mohammad Khalil
Total Records ( 4 ) for Mohammad Khalil
  Mohammad Dallak , Mahmoud Al-Khateeb , Moh'd Abbas , Riyadh Elessa , Fahaid Al- Hashem , Nabil Bashir and Mohammad Khalil
  Problem statement: Citrullus Colocynthis (L.) Schrab (cucurbitaceae family) (Handal) is a fruit commonly known as bitter apple or bitter cucumber. Traditionally, Citrullus colocynthis has been used for the treatment of diabetes. In particular, the acute effect and rout of administration of ethanol extract of the seedless pulp in vivo remains untested. We investigated the effect of different routs of administration and their hypoglycemic and insulinotropic effects of ethanol/water (20/80 V/V) extract of the dried seedless pulp of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrab on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Approach: Rats were divided into two groups, normal and diabetic rats. Non-diabetic rats were fasted for 18 h before the beginning of the experimental procedure. About 250 μL of normal saline (i.e., vehicle) was administered to control groups either i.p. (Group I) or orally (Group III) using modified feeding canula. As 250 μL pulp extract was administered i.p. (Group II) or orally (Group IV). Five min, after the administration of the extract or vehicle, an Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test (IPGTT) was conducted (1.5 g glucose/kg) on groups I, II, III and IV, but not Groups V or VI. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were fasted for 6 h before the beginning of the experimental procedure. They were divided into control (Group V) and treated groups (Group VI), each of 6 rats. As 250 μL of the extract (equivalent to 300 mg kg-1) was administered orally to alloxan treated-group, while 250 μL of the vehicle was administrated orally to the animals of control group. Serum samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h following the treatment and were used for glucose and insulin determination. Results: Oral, but not intraperitonial (i.p.) administration of ethanol extract (300 mg kg-1) resulted in acute, significant (p>0.05) and time-dependent changes in rat serum glucose and insulin levels in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In extract-treated alloxan-free rats, a maximum of 32.9% reduction in serum glucose levels was observed following Intraperitonial Glucose Tolerance Test (IPGTT) using glucose-oxidase assay. A maximum reciprocal increase of 59.5% in serum insulin levels following IPGTT was determined by ELISA. Further, in alloxan/ethanol extract-treated group, a maximum of 31% reduction in serum glucose levels as well as 370.2% increase in serum insulin levels following IPGTT were observed. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that oral administration of the ethanol extract of the dried seedless pulp of Citrullus colocynthis had normo-hypoglycemic (i.e., in normal rats), antihyperglycemic as well as insulinotropic actions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
  Mohammad Dallak , Nabil Bashir , Mohammad Abbas , Riyadh Elessa , Mohamed Haidara , Mohammad Khalil and Mahmoud A. AL-Khateeb
  Background Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract has been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects. Problem statement: The mechanism(s) underlying the antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects have not been investigated to date. Approach: The influence of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract administered orally was studied in alloxan diabetic white albino rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glybenclamide (a positive control) orally. Plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin were determined in all groups. The effect of pulp extract of this plant on liver and kidney tissues was also studied. The amount of insulin in β-cells of the Islets of Langerhans in all groups was assessed using immunohistochemistry procedure. Results: Treatment of diabetic rats with Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract (300 mg kg-1 body weight) resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose, glygosylated Hb and increased insulin levels. This significant increase in insulin may explain the increase in the activity of liver hexokinase, with concomitant decrease of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Immunohistochemistry procedure showed that the amount of insulin in β-cells of the islets of Langerhans is greater in Citrullus colocynthis treated-diabetic rats in comparison to non-treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrated that the folk medicinal plant Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a hypoglycemic effect, through an increase in insulin production and the subsequent increase in activity of glycolytic enzyme and decrease in activity of enzymes of gluconeogenesis. The present study also showed that the pulp extract of this plant to may have protective effects on the liver and kidney.
  Mohammad Khalil , Gamal Mohamed , Mohammad Dallak , Fahaid Al-Hashem , Hussein Sakr , Refaat A. Eid , Mohamed A. Adly , Mahmoud Al-Khateeb , Saleh Banihani , Zuhair Hassan and Nabil Bashir
  Problem statement: The goal of the current investigation was to clarify the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the structure of the liver of diabetic rats at both light and scanning electron microscopic levels. Approach: Forty-eight adult male albino rats were equally allocated into four groups: Group1: control, Group 2: Citrullus colocynthis-treated, Group 3: diabetic rats and Group4: diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis. All treatments were administered via an intragastric tube. Diabetes was induced in the rats of groups 3 and 4 by an intraperitoneal injection with alloxan. Results: The liver of Citrullus colocynthis-treated rats revealed minor histological changes versus the control animals. In group 3 animals, diabetes caused degenerative alterations in the form of disorganization of the hepatic cords, cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknosis of the nuclei of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration. Scanning electron microscope examination of these livers revealed numerous lipid droplets within hepatocytes, damaged blood sinusoids and hemorrhage of erythrocytes between hepatocytes and inside Disse’s spaces. On the other hand, the normal histological and scanning ultrastructural features were nearly resumed in the liver of diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract. Conclusion: The present study proved a lessening effect of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the liver of diabetic rats. In light of these advantageous influences, it is advisable to widen the scale of its use in a trial to alleviate the diabetic hepatic adverse effects.
  Fahaid Al-Hashem , Mohammad Dallak , Nabil Bashir , Mohammad Abbas , Riyadh Elessa , Mohammad Khalil and Mahmoud Al-Khateeb
  Problem statement: Cadmium is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. It is found in drinking water, atmospheric air and even in food. Cadmium is reported to be very toxic to biological systems. Until now in treating intoxication with this metal, chelating Compounds have been used, burdened with numerous undesirable symptoms. For this reason, many researches are carried out in many countries to find natural-made compounds that help in the protection against cadmium induced toxicity with fewer or no side effects. This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of daily oral Camel's milk administration against Cadmium chloride induced toxicity in white albino rats. Approach: White albino rats of both sexes (230-250 g) were housed in standard metal cages (6 rats/cage). The experimental rats (6 in each group) distributed into two experimental groups with a shared control group received only normal saline orally (Group 1). In experimental first group a daily dose (10 mg kg1 body weight) of cadmium chloride was orally administrated to the rats for 21 days and named Cadmium chloride treated rats. In experimental second group, the same concentrations of cadmium chloride was dissolved in 2 mL of early morning fresh Camel's milk and the whole solution was administered into the experimental rats for 21 days and named Camel's milk cadmium chloride treated group. Water and food were provided ad libitum. Results: The data indicated that, in experimental Cadmium chloride treated rats, serum albumin, calcium and blood hemoglobin were decreased compared with control group received normal saline only. Moreover, Camel's milk administration with cadmium chloride showed a significant improvement of albumin, hemoglobin and calcium levels in the serum of the rats compared with cadmium chloride treated rats. Serum iron, sodium, chloride and urea levels were significantly increased in cadmium chloride treated rats compared with control group, while the addition of camel's milk to cadmium chloride decreased the high levels of these serum parameters in the treated rats. The enzyme activities of serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and serum Alkaline Phaospatase (ALP) were significantly increased by orally administration of cadmium chloride compared with control group, while adding Camel's milk to cadmium chloride decreased the high levels of these enzymes comparing with the cadmium chloride treated rats. Cadmium chloride administration resulted in a high concentration of lipid peroxidation markers; TBARS and Hydroperoxides in comparison to control group, adding camel's milk to the cadmium chloride restored the levels of these markers to their normal levels in comparing to Cadmium chloride treated rats. Also treatment with cadmium chloride alone caused a significant decrease in both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and reduced glutathione, respectively in the liver tissues of treated rats, while the administration of camel's milk with cadmium chloride increased and restored their levels to near normal in comparing with cadmium chloride treated rats. These results demonstrated that camel's milk had a protective effect against the toxicity induced by cadmium chloride. Conclusion: the above results indicated a protective effect of camel's milk oral administration against cadmium induced toxicity in white albino rats.
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