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Articles by Mohammad Abdollahi
Total Records ( 62 ) for Mohammad Abdollahi
  Ali Akbar Malekirad , Nasser Hosseini , Mansour Bayrami , Touraj Hashemi , Kobra Rahzani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Medicinal plants are considered as natural sources of antioxidant compounds which may protect organisms against oxidative stresses. The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora). This clinical investigation was performed on a group of 43 healthy subjects. They were invited to use 3 mg of lemon verbena leaves as infusion daily at the morning and evening for two weeks. At the beginning and the end of investigation, blood samples were taken to study their lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant activities beside the total thiol groups. At the end of experiment, data were subjected to the paired t-test analysis. After treatment, the total antioxidants of serum (1.95±1.1 vs. 1.67±0.95 μmol mL-1) significantly increased while the lipid peroxidation reduced (12.23±9.35 vs. 15.66±12.15 nmol mL-1). The treatment had no significant effect on the total thiol groups. Lemon verbena is beneficial in improving body oxidant/antioxidant balance and thus its clinical efficacy remains to be tested in oxidative-stress-related diseases or conditions. Use of this herbal extract is recommended as a dietary supplement.
  Muhammad Sarwar , Idress Hamad Attitalla and Mohammad Abdollahi
  There is a growing focus on the importance of medicinal plants and traditional health systems in solving the health care problems of the world. Use of plants as a source of medicine has come to new developing world from ancient practices. In this study, the most recent studies published in experimental advances in medicinal plants during January 2010 to April 2011 have been reviewed to indicate the extent of advances using ASCI database. Most of studies addressed antioxidant effects of medicinal plants followed by antimicrobial, anti-diabetic anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antifungal and anticancer properties. Fabaceae was found to be the most abundantly studied family with a total of eleven studied plants, followed by Lamiaceae, Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rubiaceae, Zingiberaceae, Apiaceae, Compositae, Anarcadiaceae, Acanthaceae, Asciepiadaceae and Rutaceae. In spite of the fact that tremendous efforts were done by the researchers by providing an alternate with minimum side effects, easy accessibility and excellent compatibility, future clinical trials and standardization are still desired as an important steps in drug discovery.
  B. Larijani , M. Salimi , N. Pourkhalili , A. Mohammadirad , M. Baeeri , A. Nili-Ahmadabadi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  IMOD as a multi-herbal-selenium electromagnetically-treated combination was tested for its potential on the function and level of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in isolated rat pancreatic islets. After Laparotomy, pancreas were removed and islets were isolated and incubated in RPMI 1640 for 24 h and then islets were separated and divided into several tubes containing ten in each. IMOD at logarithmic doses (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm) were added to islets and incubated for 24 h and then static insulin secretion, at low dose (2.8 mM) glucose and high dose (16.7 mM) glucose was tested. Cells viability and ROS were also determined. IMOD at 0.1 ppm increased islet insulin secretion in response to glucose in both basic and stimulation levels. This drug at 1 ppm dose only increased insulin concentration in stimulation levels of glucose. IMOD at 10, 100 and 1000 ppm decreased insulin secretion in both levels of glucose. The viability at the doses of 0.1 and 1 ppm increased. The result of ROS test showed a decrease although significant, at the lower dose (0.1 μM) but increased dose-dependently at the doses of 10, 100 and 1000 ppm. IMOD has significant anti oxidative effects at low doses and improves viability and insulin secretion of isolated islets in both basic and stimulation levels of glucose. Pretreatment with IMOD may improve transplant outcome and graft function. Its effect in insulin release maybe promising in treatment of diabetes.
  Mojdeh Mohammadi , Shokoufeh Atashpour , Nazila Pourkhalili , Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi , Maryam Baeeri , Azadeh Mohammadirad , Shokoufeh Hassani , Shekoufeh Nikfar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Increased oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of cellular death and β-cell failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of different types of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors including milrinone (PDE-3), rolipram (PDE-4) and sildenafil (PDE-5) on viability, production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and secretion of insulin from isolated rat pancreatic islets. Pancreatic islets were carefully isolated and incubated in RPMI 1640 for 24 h. After overnight incubation, islets were picked up and divided into ten in each groups. Then, milrinone, rolipram and sildenafil at doses of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 FM were added to islet groups and incubated for further 24 h. Then static insulin secretion at 2.8 and 16.7 mM concentrations of glucose, was tested. Then the viability of cells, level of ROS and insulin were examined. The results of static experiments showed that secretion of insulin increased significantly in response to glucose at both basic (2.8 mM) and stimulation (16.7 mM) levels by the lower doses of tested PDE inhibitors. The level of ROS at the lower doses of milrinone decreased. The viability of islets at the lower doses of all of PDE inhibitors were increased; however, viability at the higher doses of sildenafil and rolipram reduced significantly. Milrinone was the most effective PDE inhibitors on the function of isolated pancreatic islets. PDE inhibitors show the most significant anti-oxidative effects at lower doses. Concerning improvement of isolated islets function, PDE-3 inhibitor is the best among tested compounds. PDE inhibitors may help management of diabetes and facilitate conditions of islet transplantation.
  Shirin Hasani Ranjbar , Bagher Larijani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Improving the world health has resulted in increasing some kind of debilitating diseases. Among these debilitating diseases, the type 2 diabetes is one of the major concerns. In the recent years, new treatment options such as herbal products have emerged to improve glycemic control in these patients. However, the efficacy and safety of these new remedies are still a concern. Recent updates prove benefit of some herbal medicines like Citrullus Colocynthis, Silybum marianum, Plantago ovata, Teucrium polium, Vaccinium myrtillus, Urtica dioica, Medicago sativa, Punica granatum, Panax ginseng, Aloe vera, Allium sativum, Satureja khuzestanica and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Although, animal studies seem complete in demonstrating benefit of these medicines but clinical trials are not complete yet. Standardization of genus and type of the plant, higher sample size trials to specify the dosage and time treatment, or synergistic effects when used in mixtures with other herbs/drugs and profiling adverse effects/toxicities are the issues that should be taken into account in future. The constituents of these medicinal herbs should be targeted for new anti-diabetic drugs.
  Azadeh Mohammadirad , H.R. Khorram-Khorshid , Farhad Gharibdoost and Mohammad Abdollahi
  This review focuses on the efficacy of Setarud (IMOD) that is an effective new drug in the management of different conditions in animal and human. IMOD is a new natural mixture that demonstrated immune modulating activity in preliminary investigations. To conduct this review, all relevant databases were searched up to 20th August 2011 for the term IMOD or Setarud and all human, animal and in vitro studies considered the effects of IMOD. A total of 13 studies were included. Some human studies showed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects of IMOD by lowering tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and CD4 (a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells) that are involved in process of inflammation and oxidative stress consequences. The positive effects of IMOD in the control of experimental models of colitis, diabetes, hyperchlosteromia, polycyctic ovary syndrome and liver injury were found that were mediated mainly through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. IMOD has also enhanced secretion of insulin from the rat isolated pancreatic islets and human B lymphocyte. It is concluded that IMOD has optimistic effects on oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory conditions in various diseases which most probably is resulted from combinational effects of herbs and the elements present in the mixture of IMOD.
  Saeideh Momtaz and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Aging is an undeniable fact shadowing animal life but while it comes to human, aging affects all aspects of their physical and emotional abilities. Aging occurs by multi-stimuli which is affected by both environmental and internal conditions. During the past decade, remarkable recognition of cellular senescence and its related pathways has happened. The increased production and/or ineffective scavenging of oxidants in particular, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a critical role in cellular senescence. High reactivity of ROS determines chemical changes in virtually all cellular components, leading to senescence mostly via DNA damage. Present paper discusses the oxidative stress as the main cause of aging and the benefit of antioxidants. So far, more effective explorations are needed to decrease the deleterious effects of oxidative-stress-induced aging. This approach could be achieved through manipulations of antioxidant enzyme systems, development of drug therapies, manipulation of aging related genes and genetic manipulation of plant-based antioxidant resources.
  Sima Ghiasi , Sindokht Ghiasi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes are presented in nearly all cells and inhibitors of these enzymes have various pharmacological properties including cardiotonic, vasodilator, smooth muscle relaxant, antidepressant, antithrombotic, bronchodilator, anti inflammatory and enhancer of cognitive function. According to their different usage and the wide expression of PDE enzyme in the body screening the applications of PDE inhibitors (PDEI) may help to find effective pharmacological therapy with the least adverse effect for treatment of different toxicities. In this study we reviewed the protective effects of PDEI in different toxicities caused by toxins or drugs including cardiovascular toxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastric mocusal damage and their beneficial role in inflammatory bowel disease and diabetes melitus. Most of included studies were in animal. Results indicate that 3 families of PDEIs (3, 4, 5) are the most common drugs that have been used as compared to other types of PDEIs in treatment of toxicities. It is required to conduct human and clinical examinations on anti-toxicity effects of PDEIs.
  Asieh Hosseini and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available.
  Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar , Somayeh Khosravi , Neda Nayebi , Bagher Larijani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants which have been utilized in traditional medicine for anti-aging purpose. All relevant databases were searched for the terms “anti-aging” and “herbs” or “medicinal plant” without limitation up to 30th January 2011. All the clinical and non-clinical studies with the outcome of change in aging process were included. Search in databases resulted in 1733 articles that on the basis of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 67 studies were finally included. Six human and 61 animal studies were reviewed for the effect of anti-aging herbs on aging process. Most of the studies showed significant improvement in brain function (memory, cognitive, anxiety), sexual disorder and skin wrinkle. From the performed studies, the exact mechanism of anti-aging action and side effect cannot be concluded and thus further studies would be helpful.
  Mona Navaei-Nigjeh , Mahban Rahimifard , Nazila Pourkhalili , Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi , Mohsen Pakzad , Maryam Baeeri and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Oxidative stress is involved in complications of diabetes. This study investigated the hypothesis that the cerium oxide nanoparticle/sodium selenite combination can synergistically improve oxidative stress indexes in vital organs (kidney, heart, brain and lung) of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight-fasted male Wistar rats via a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg kg-1). The effective doses of cerium oxide nanoparticle (60 mg/kg/day) and sodium selenite (5 μmol/kg/day) alone or in combination were administered for 14 days to diabetic rats. Rats with blood glucose of more than (300 mg dL-1) were selected and divided into six groups including vehicle control, STZ control, cerium oxide nanoparticles, sodium selenite, combination of cerium oxide nanoparticles with sodium selenite and metal form of cerium oxide. At the end of 2 weeks, organ tissues including brain, heart, lung and kidney of animals were removed and then oxidative stress markers including cellular Lipid Peroxidation (LPO), Total Antioxidant Power (TAP), Total Thiol Molecules (TTM) and Reactive Oxygen Molecules (ROM) were evaluated. Combination of cerium oxide nanoparticles and sodium selenite significantly reduced ROM and LPO levels in all the organs. The results of TTM showed an increase in all tissues expect the lung. TAP increased in combination group in all studied tissues expect the lung. The beneficial effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles/sodium selenite in diabetic rats is mediated through control of oxidative stress mechanisms. These effects were more noticeable in kidney, brain and heart.
  Mahnaz Khanavi , Marzieh Taheri , Afsaneh Rajabi , Saeed Fallah-Bonekohal , Maryam Baeeri , Azadeh Mohammadirad , Gholamreza Amin and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The aqueous, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of dried aerial fruiting parts of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana were investigated for hypoglycemic mechanism in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous administration of streptozotocin-alloxan. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were administered in a single effective dose of 200 mg kg-1 and dichloromethane and aqueous extracts were administered in a single effective dose of 400 mg kg-1. Blood glucose was determined every 1 h until 3 h post administration of the extracts. In the second experiment, the liver was surgically removed 3 h post treatment of diabetic rats with various extracts, homogenized and used for measurement of key enzymes of glycogenolysis (glycogen phosphorylase, GP) and gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK). Treatment by dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts and the glibenclamide, reduced blood glucose to 41.7, 55.0, 45.7, 29.5 and 34.5%, respectively. The aqueous extract showed the best effect in reduction of hepatic PEPCK activity (84.0%) and increased hepatic GP activity (134.5%), while glibenclamide showed 62.5 and 133.0% activity, respectively. None of the extracts affected blood insulin. Presence of sugar in dried aqueous extract could suppress the hypoglycemic effect during the first hour of the experiment. After 1 h, the hepatic mechanism overwhelmed and thus lowering effect in blood glucose appeared. The conclusion is that C. bruguierana ssp. belangerana is able to lower blood glucose via stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis.
  Mahban Rahimifard , Mona Navaii-Nigjeh , Amir Nilli-Ahmadabadi , Nazila Pourkhalili , Maryam Baeeri , Azadeh Mohammadirad and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Glycyrrhizic Acid (GA) a major component of licorice, has been reported to have potent antioxidant effects and used widely throughout the world. In the present study, the effects of GA on the function, viability and level of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in isolated rat pancreatic islets were evaluated. After Laparotomy, pancreas was removed and islets were isolated and incubated in RPMI 1640 for 24 h and then islets were separated. GA at logarithmic doses (1, 10, 100 and 1000 μM) were added to islets and incubated for 24 h and then static insulin secretion was tested. Also, viability of cells and their ROS level were determined using Mitochondrial Toxicity Test (MTT) and fluorometric assay. Then islets were stained by dithizone and observed under microscope. The results of MTT test indicated that rang of 1-100 μM of GA is safe. In the dose of 1000 μM, GA increased ROS and reduced viability of islets. GA at 1 μM significantly increased secretion of insulin via isolated islets in the presence of stimulation level of glucose (16.7 mM). Results of dithizone staining showed a reduction in live cells at high dose of GA. The LC50 study was done to determine the toxicity of GA on rat pancreatic islets and a 24 h LC50 of 15 mM was found. GA showed remarkable anti oxidative effects at low doses and improved islet’s viability and insulin secretion in stimulation level of glucose. Interestingly, high dose of GA induced oxidative stress and reduced function of islets. The results of the present study indicate that GA is a good candidate to be examined in islet transplantation procedures to maintain islets viable and functional.
  Seyedeh Farnaz Ghasemi-Niri , Sara Solki , Tina Didari , Shilan Mozaffari , Maryam Baeeri , Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar , Azadeh Mohammadirad , Hossein Jamalifar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Alteration of intestinal microflora has an important role in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and probiotics by balancing microflora and modulating inflammatory cytokines seem effective in management of IBD. In the present study, two combinations of probiotics Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) plus Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) or plus Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) were tested for their potential to prevent or treat experimental colitis in rats. Nine groups of animals including sham (normal group), control (vehicle-treated), dexamethasone as standard, treatment groups (oral administration of L. casei and mixture of (L. casei-B. bifidum and L. casei-S. boulardii after induction of colitis) and prevention groups (oral administrations of L. casei and mixture of (L. casei-B. bifidum and L. casei-S. boulardii before induction of colitis) were used. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in all groups. In treatment groups, histological scores and TNF-α, MPO and LPO levels attenuated significantly but colonic lesions in the prevention groups did not recover. The results revealed that, combination of L. casei-B. bifidum and L. casei-S. boulardii alleviated inflammatory parameters in colitis but these combinations were ineffective to prevent colitis. In addition, we found that mixture of probiotics is significantly more effective than L. casei group in improving barrier function of epithelium in experimental colitis model.
  Amir Baghaei , Neda Hajimohammadi , Maryam Baeeri , Azadeh Mohammadirad , Shokoufeh Hassani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Aluminum phosphide (AlP) intoxication is becoming a major concern worldwide due to its high mortality rate (30-100%) besides non-availability of effective antidote till date. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of IMOD, a novel mixed herbal medicine on energy depletion, oxidative stress and change of electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters in the heart tissue of the rats poisoned by AlP. IMOD at doses of 13, 20 and 30 mg kg-1 was administered intraperitoneally 30 min after gavage intragastric administration of AlP (0.25 LD50). Sodium bicarbonate was used as the control. After anesthesia, animals were rapidly connected to PowerLab® device for monitoring of ECG, blood pressure and heart rate for 180 min. At 24 h post treatment, rats were decapitated and hearts removed for evaluation of oxidative stress markers and production of energy. AlP ingestion led to significant heart rate and blood pressure decrement as well as ST variation and shortening of PR interval. Administration of IMOD normalized AlP-disturbed cardiovascular parameters. IMOD also restored heart energy via re-establishment of cellular ATP pool and elimination of oxidative stress markers. These findings confirm the potential benefits of IMOD as an effective treatment for acute AlP poisoning that remain to be trialed clinically.
  Sanaz Shahriari , Narguess Yasa , Azadeh Mohammadirad , Reza Khorasani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Rosa damascena Mill, (Rosaceae) is a widely cultivated ornamental plant. Several therapeutic effects including calmative, antianxiety, laxative and antispasmodic have been described for the flower of R. damascena. The petals of R. damascena are specially used as cardiotonic by the people of Guilan province. In this study antioxidant potential of R. damascena petals were determined by FRAP test and its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation was determined by TBARS test in rat. In vivo examination was performed by oral administration of ethanol extract of R. damascena petals at doses of 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 10 days which compared to vitamin E (10 mg/kg/day) and control groups. In vivo evaluation of antioxidant effects of R. damascene with these two methods showed that the extract of R. damascena has a high ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and has a high antioxidant power with all doses comparing to control (p<0.001). The highest activity was observed with the dose of 200 mg/kg/day. This preliminary study indicates the interesting anti oxidative stress activity of R. damascena, which is comparable to the known antioxidant compound, alpha-tocopherol. R. damascena can be considered as a medicinal source for the treatment and prevention of many free radicals related diseases.
  Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar , Neda Nayebi , Bagher Larijani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of Teucrium species that are effective in the management of different conditions in human and animal. Embase, Scopus, Pubmed, Google Scholar and IranMedex databases were searched up to 11th May 2009. The search terms were Teucrium or germander or Calpoureh. All of the human and animal studies considered the effects of Teucrium with the key outcome of change in blood glucose, serum lipids, anti-oxidant parameters, hepatic enzymes, anti-inflammation, analgesic effects, anti-ulcer effects anti-microbial effect and toxic effects were included. Studies performed on cell lines, in vitro studies, reviews and letters to editors were excluded. Of initial search, 7325 record were reviewed for inclusion or exclusion in study. Finally, 68 studies were included. Some animal and one human study showed hypoglycemic effects of Teucrium. In one animal study, Teucrium decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride in hyper-lipidemic rats. Some studies indicated anti-oxidant, anti-spasmodic, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Teucrium. According to histopathological and biochemical evidences, high doses or long-term administration of Teucrium may induce progressive impairment of neuromuscular coordination and reversible or irreversible hepatic damage. Teucrium has antidiabetic effect by enhancing secretion of insulin from the pancreas. The flavonoids and sterols are responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant. Isolation and characterization of Teucrium constituents is suggested to reach suitable drugs.
  Sarah Mousavi , Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Supraphysiological concentrations of oxygen (hyperoxia) is necessary for treatment or prevention of hypoxemic condition, but hyperoxia through activation of oxidative stress pathways and generation of reactive oxygen species directly or indirectly result in lung injury and dysfunction. Many mediators are involved in the pathways to hyperoxic cell death seeming that transition metal ions especially iron promote the generation of the very reactive free radicals which are damaging to cells. Thus concerning the role of iron, a systematic review was conducted by reviewing all papers found from searching keywords of iron, lung injury, oxidative stress or hyperoxia in bibliography databases. Due to different pathways involved in hyperoxia-induced lung injury, several classes of drugs have been tested for example antioxidants, dexamethasone, pentoxifylline, erythropoietin, lisofylline, sildenafile, N-acetyl cysteine, or prostaglandine but some of them were not only successful but caused significant adverse effects. Findings indicate that metal ions especially iron through catalyzing of most reactive free radicals has a key role in oxidative stress process and hyperoxic condition and thus limitation of iron for prevention of hyperoxia-induced injury seems reasonable. Iron chelation has been recently used for conditions without iron overload such as neurodegenerative, infectious, reperfusion injury, cardioprotection. There are some evidences about positive effects of desferrioxamine alone or in combination when tested in animal models of lung injury or in human but they are not convincing. Further studies are necessary to clarify the importance of intervention with desferrioxamine or new long acting oral agent deferasirox and their risk/benefit in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
  Saeideh Momtaz and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Since ancient, the genus Satureja L. is well recognized for its therapeutic values. Only recently, scientists have been aware of its new medicinal aspects. In our last review, we evaluated existing scientific data about this genus. Regarding ongoing reports and new multi-functional properties of this plant we were interested to update pharmacology of Satureja. Data were gathered using of scientific books, journals, articles and websites including Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar up to 25th April 2010. Of initial search, 1540 records were reviewed for inclusion or exclusion in study, of which 71 publications were included. Different species of Satureja are famous for their analgesic, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antiprotozoal, antifungal, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anticholinesterase and vasodilatory activities. The valuable therapeutic aspects of this genus are mostly correlated to the existence of essential oils, flavonoids and triterpenoids. The combination of two or more subspecies acting by different mechanisms to produce a synergistic effect should be considered. Based on the conducted assessments so far, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, vasodilatory and analgesic activities are characterized as the most applicable properties of Satureja subspecies. Further studies are needed to confirm novel pharmacological aspects of this genus in both animal and human.
  Azadeh Mohammadirad and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review on the animal or human evidences linking aluminium (Al) toxicity to oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. Embase, Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and SID databases were searched up to 1st October 2010. Over 50 studies including animal and human linking oxidative stress to Al were reviewed. Most of animal and human studies show a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) by Al. The maximum LPO was reported in the brain. Data about changes of enzymatic antioxidants such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) post exposure to Al are controversial. Animal studies showed that vitamin E, C, melatonin and pinoline reduce LPO in Al-exposed subjects. Al can affect body oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidative toxic stress. Among parameters tested in various studies, LPO seems the best indicator of Al toxicity. The role of iron homeostasis in mediation of cytotoxic effects of Al seems important. Since, oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, it would not be surprising to track roles of Al in many deliberating diseases in future.
  Shekoufeh Nikfar , Mohsen Khatibi , Akbar Abdollahi-Asl and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Epidemiological data show that the most inpatient disease resulting in hospitalization in Iran is poisoning where drug poisoning is the second cause of mortality in hospitalized patients. There is no report on the use, availability and cost expenditure of antidotes in the country. Regarding the importance of this kind of information in health policy, we aimed to review accessibility and affordability of antidotes in Iran as a sample model. Demographic and epidemiologic data about antidotes and their impacts in economic situation of the country during 2004-2008 were extracted from Iranian drug affair's, drug selection committee, pharmaceuticals statistics, direct interview with stockholders and key opinion leaders in toxicology and World Health Organization (WHO) reports. Data were extracted and analyzed for demographic, economic and health information, availability and accessibility of antidotes and five-year cost-utilization trends of antidotes. As a developing country, Gross National Production (GNP) per capita in Iran is about 7000 $US. Gross national income per capita in Iran is 9,800 USA dollar (USD). Total expenditure on health per capita is 731 USD that is 7.8% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and total drug expenditure is 24000 billion Rials (10000 Rials≈1 USD). Iranian drug list (IDL) include most of antidotes, while 73% of them are registered and available in the market. Entire IDL includes 2230 medicines that 27 of them are antidote (1.1%). The volume of utilization of existing antidotes during 5 years indicate that 25% of them are almost expensive (more than 40000 Rials or 10 dollars) that is 1% of expenditure basket of Iran. All antidotes are under umbrella of insurance. Because of multi-purpose use of these drugs and high price of some of them, a real estimation of demand for good management of poisoning and pharmaceutical regulation and supply management is necessary for having a strategic depot. More feasible and reliable procurements, appropriate information and effective integration of health care services would have a good impact on poisoning management and policy making to better afford health cares in all countries like Iran. Effective impact of poisoning in economical and social concerns of the life necessitates implementation of stronger policies in clinical toxicology matters.
  Avin Mehri , Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar , Bagher Larijani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of Urtica dioica which has been utilized in traditional medicine for management of diabetes. All relevant databases including Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, Iranmedex and MD Consult were searched for the terms diabetes mellitus and Urtica dioica without limitation up to 15th September 2010. All the animal studies with the outcome of change in blood glucose or other relevant complications of diabetes and all available abstracts were included. Review articles and letters to the editor were excluded. Search of databases resulted in 724 articles which 87 were potentially relevant studies on Urtica dioica and diabetes. On the basis of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 21 studies were finally included. One human and 20 animal studies were reviewed for the efficacy of Urtica dioica. Most of these studies showed significant decrease in blood glucose and complications of diabetes by use of Urtica dioica. Urtica dioica can affect both pancreatic and extra pancreatic pathways. Available evidences suggest that Urtica dioica can be used to treat diabetes and its long-term complications. Of course, further experiments would help determine exact mechanisms of action, effects and side effects of this herbal medicine.
  Pooneh Salari Sharif and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The association between cardiovascular diseases and senile chronic diseases has been thought from many years ago. Osteoporosis is one of the major senile and chronic disease which accounts for high morbidity and mortality as well as high cost among elderly patients. Concerning the importance of prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease as well as osteoporosis, and the pleiotropic effects of statins, the theory of the beneficial effects of statins on bone was proposed from different aspects such as the effect of statins on bone formation, bone resorption, bone mineral density and fracture risk. The probable link between cholesterol synthesis and bone metabolism has been also suggested. Regarding the link between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, in vitro studies show beneficial effects of statins on bone formation, however, most of clinical trials do not completely confirm the issue. Meanwhile, some investigators believe in the impact of statins on bone turnover. However, there is no conclusive data and agreement yet to recommend use of statins neither as a treatment nor prevention of osteoporosis. More longitudinal studies in different ethnicities with large sample sizes are suggested.
  Shekoufeh Nikfar , Solmaz Ehteshami-Afshar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a major role in severity of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and thus inhibition of TNF-α is used to control severe cases of UC. The present meta-analysis was performed to collect and review all the clinical trials that investigated the efficacy and tolerability of infliximab in order to determine whether infliximab is more effective than placebo or corticosteroids in inducing response and remission in UC. All bibliographic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies investigated the efficacy of infliximab for the management of UC. Data were collected from 1966 to September 2010. Three trials represented 57 patients with UC who were randomized to receive infliximab or corticosteroids and 5 trials represented 827 patients with UC who were randomized to receive infliximab or placebo were included in the analysis. The summary Relative Risk (RR) for clinical remission in comparison of infliximab with placebo was 1.93 with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 1.62-2.3 and a significant RR (p<0.0001). Summary RR for adverse events of infliximab comparing to placebo was 1.07 with a 95% CI of 0.99-1.14, a non-significant RR (p = 0.0725). The summary RR for serious adverse events of infliximab comparing to placebo was 0.83 with a 95% CI of 0.44-1.54 as a non-significant RR (p = 0.5472). The summary RR for clinical remission of infliximab comparing to corticosteroids was 1.07 with a 95% CI of 0.87-1.31 as a non-significant RR (p = 0.5353). Patients receiving infliximab were 1.93 and 1.07 times more likely to go to the remission as compared to those receiving placebo and corticosteroids, respectively. Meanwhile, the risk of adverse events in the patients receiving infliximab was 1.07 times more than placebo group. The risk of opportunistic infection was high in patients who have failed steroids and cyclosporine and were using infliximab. Although infliximab is more effective than corticosteroids in inducing clinical remission, we believe further trials are still needed to judge stronger in this respect.
  Muhammad Sarwar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  International Journal of Pharmacology was launched by Asian Network for Scientific Information (ANSInet) with the objectives to provide a vibrant and unique forum to the pharmacologists around the world to present outstanding researches in the field. In this editorial paper, the progress, editorial decisions and contribution of scientists from different countries in International Journal of Pharmacology during the year 2010 have been summarized. This paper also highlights the editorial efforts to make the journal more visible and reviewer’s efforts to improve the quality of the contents to meet high standards of scientific publications.
  Pooneh Salari and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and osteoporosis two common disease in aged people has been theorized since several years ago but many controversies exist yet. In this study, the role of inflammatory cytokines in both diseases has been studied in depth. In the pathophysiology of diseases, estrogen deficiency (in women), oxidative stress, vitamin K deficiency, vitamin D overload, secondary hyperparathyroidism, hyperhomocysteinemia and inflammation play substantial role. Meanwhile, drug therapy of each disease may affect the other one, a spectacle potentiating the common inflammatory link theory. Results of this review indicate that cytokines or proteins such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-11, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferons, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte M-CSF (GM-CSF), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), osteonectin, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), transcription factor for osteoblasts differentiation (Runx2), C-reactive protein (CRP), cyclooxygenase (COX), oxidized LDL, paraoxonase, lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin K and platelets are shared in the pathophysiology of both diseases. Accordingly, drugs such as bisphosphonates, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors known as statins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel or ticlopidine and phytoesteroges affect conditions of both diseases. The inflammatory elements sharing in pathogenesis of both CVD and osteoporosis lead us to revise developments of new drugs in this specific area of science that is much relevant to the health of elderly people who are increasing in developed world.
  Pooneh Salari , Shekoufeh Nikfar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Recently, exenatide as an incretin mimetic was approved by FDA as an adjunct to diet and exercise in treating type 2 diabetes. Therefore comparing every new medication with insulin can provide more clues about the real benefit of paying extra budget for new drugs. In this meta-analysis we compared the efficacy and tolerability of exenatide to insulin. The literature search provided 1016 articles while only 5 articles were eligible to be included in the meta-analysis with a total of 1404 patients enrolled in the study. The results show that there is no superiority for exenatide over insulin even in its weight reduction advantage. However, the high risk of gastrointestinal side effects including nausea and vomiting is of major concern. Current evidence does not support the advantage of exenatide over insulin but more clinical trials are needed to reach a convincing conclusion.
  Omid Mehrpour , Esmaeil Farzaneh and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a pesticide which release phosphine gas when comes in contact with water or hydrochloric acid in stomach. Phosphine is a mitochondrial poison and interferes with protein and enzyme synthesis. Cardiogenic shock secondary to toxic myocarditis remains the most common cause of death in AlP poisoning. There is citable report on the use of digoxin for treatment of cardiac failure from ALP poisoning, although it has been used effectively for other causes of cardiac failure. Here an 18-years old female is introduced who referred to poisoning center with acute AlP poisoning and cardiogenic shock. Digoxin 0.5 mg was initially used and followed by 0.5 mg every 6 h during the first day. Digoxin was continued by 0.25 mg daily for management of cardiogenic shock until the effects of AlP resolved. The patient was discharged 10 days after admission, with full recovery. The conclusion is that administration of digoxin to ALP poisoning cases help manage to cardiogenic shock and prevent from death but needs to be confirmed by further studies.
  Sara Mostafalou and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available
  Asieh Hosseini and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available
  Mansoor Rastegarpanah , Naghmeh Omidzohour , Homayoon Vahedi , Reza Malekzadeh , Farshad Hashemian , Tahereh Safarnavadeh and Mohammad Abdollahi
  To evaluate clinical benefit of Satureja Khuzestanica (SK) trade named Saturex in Ulcerative Colitis (UC). A randomized controlled trial was conducted in UC patients. Patients with proliferative retinopathy, significant renal impairment (serum creatinine>3 mg dL-1), documented coronary artery disease, chronic liver disease, diabetic foot ulceration and gangrene and pulmonary infection were excluded from the study. The patients were administered 500 mg SK or placebo supplements once daily while they were maintained on their current treatment for UC. After 4 months, frequency difference of the disease flare up was compared between study and placebo groups. 12/14 (85.5%) of SK patients were in complete remission after 4 months as compared to 6/13 (46.2%) of the patients on placebo. The flare up frequency difference (0.07-0.73) between two groups was significant. Supplementing with SK by preventing disease flare up and keeping the patients in remission state would give the opportunity to physicians to reduce the dose of chemical drugs resulting in lower side effects and better compliance of patients.
  Ali Akbar Malekirad , Mohadeseh Mojtabaee , Mahya Faghih , Gholamhassan Vaezi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide that does not have obvious effective drug. The aim of this study was to determine the capability of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm), Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Urtica dioica mixture infusion (1.5, 0.5 and 0.25 g/100 mL) on patients with NAFLD. The study was designed as a before-after clinical trial and performed on 35 patients with NAFLD. They were asked to drink the mixture infusion which were prepared in special bags twice a day for 30 days. Liver markers of NAFLD such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphates (ALKp) in plasma were measured before and after using the infusion. The use of the infusion in NAFLD resulted in a significant decrease in ALT. Also activity of the AST and ALP were decreased after administration of the infusion but these decreases were not significant. Also a significant decrease in grade of sonographic examination was found. A significant linear correlation was also found between age and AST and ALT. However, no linear correlation was found between gender and weight and liver enzymes. Taken altogether, it is concluded that consumption of the present mixture has some benefits in NAFLD.
  Davood Fazli , Ali Akbar Malekirad , Ali Asghar Pilevarian , Homayon Salehi , Akbar Zerratpishe , Kobra Rahzani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  This study was designed to evaluate potential of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm) infusion on the improvement of oxidative stress markers in workers occupationally exposed to aluminum (Al). In this before-after clinical trial, 30 Al workers were asked to drink Lemon balm infusion which was prepared like a tea bag twice per day (1.5 g/100 mL) for 30 days. Blood samples before and after entering the study were measured for lipid peroxidation (LPO), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Total Thiol Molecules (TTM), liver enzyme and some blood parameters. Use of Lemon balm infusion resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of TTM and TAC and a significant decrease in triglyceride, cholesterol and aspartate transaminase (AST). LPO was not different before and after treatment. The conclusion is that infusions of Lemon balm improves oxidative stress condition in Al workers when used as a dietary supplement.
  Farideh Khodabandeh , Saba Kahani , Shahin Shadnia and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Despite evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is effective for opioid dependence, it remains a controversial therapy which its effectiveness has been disputed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of MMT vs. narcotics anonymous (NA). This was a longitudinal follow-up study. A total of 600 patients were included. The patients, current opioid misuse was confirmed by rapid urine test. Three hundred cases were engaged in MMT and others in NA program. The patients were not randomized to conditions but the groups were balanced. The study protocol consisted of a basic interview with the patients. Follow-up visits were scheduled. The goal of the study was to compare the outcomes of two groups regarding the retention rate. The majority of clients were male in both groups. The median age was 34 years in MMT group and 30 years in NA group. The median duration of opioid misuse before beginning the treatment was 7 and 2 years in MMT and NA groups. Seventy-four percent and 84% of patients remain in treatments in MMT and NA groups, respectively. The mean number of days in treatment was 210 days in MMT group compared to 270 days in NA group. There was no significant difference between 2 groups in this regard. Our findings suggest the usefulness of MMT in reducing opioid misuse but it does not show a statistically significant superior effect on key outcomes, including retention in the treatment.
  Amir Farshchi , Mona Jaberidoost , Akbar Abdollahiasl and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Iran has been one of the highest users of diphenoxylate in the world in 2008. Iranian food and drug organisation (FDO) established some rules to control the usage of this drug included rationalizing the supply and doubling the price. Data were gathered from the distributors and wholesalers of this medicine in the country during 2006-2010. These data were cross-checked with importation data in the Ministry of Health and a trend analysis was tabulated. In 2009, the average consumption reached to less than 650 million tablets which show 42% decrease in comparison to the previous year. After the second intervention, there has been no significant change in the trend. The first intervention has controlled the use of diphenoxylate by reduction of market need and lessening diphenoxylate unauthorized use. Data do not support the efficiency of second intervention meaning that doubling the price does not work.
  Fatemeh Soleymani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Rational drug use cannot be identified without a method of measurement and a reference standard that are necessary to measure the impact of interventions. Over the past few years, the International Network for Rational Use of Drug (INRUD) and the WHO Action Program on Essential Drugs have closely collaborated in developing countries to test a set of 5 prescribing indicators to measure some key aspects of prescribing. Collecting the prescriptions data and analyzing them is one way for measuring the above indicators. In Iran, National Committee of Rational Use of Drug (NCRUD) and local committees affiliated to 42 universities of medical sciences were established by Food and Drug Organisation in 1996 throughout the country to implement and promote rational use of drugs. Here we aimed to examine all prescribing patterns in Iran in terms of irrational use of drugs. To look at the pattern of physicians’ prescription, the subcommittee of computer and data analysis of NCRUD was set up to initiate and develop a data warehouse and application software. The intended outcome of such efforts was to gather and analyze prescription data for measuring RUD indicators and strategies to promote rational drug use. After development, data ware house, called “Noskhehpardaz (RX Analyzer),” was tested for its validity and reliability in a pilot study in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in 1996. More than 200 million prescriptions, equaling about to 70% of all prescriptions in the country, were collected nationally and analyzed by RX Analyzer software. Mean items per prescription was 4. 25 in 1998 and with the downward trend were 3.22 in 2009. Mean cost of prescriptions increased from 0.56 US$ in 1998 to 4.19 US$ in 2009. Availability of information on prescriptions has facilitated audit and feedback suggesting that policy makers should have to consider these data in their decisions.
  Seyed Vahid Shetab-Boushehri and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available.
  Shilan Mozaffari , Shirin Hasani-Ranjbar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Dyslipidemia and following atherosclerosis as a chronic affection remain one major cause of death all over the world. Given multiple reports on positive effects of melatonin on dyslipidemia, there is a need for reviewing all these studies in order to reach a convincing conclusion. Towards this goal, we have reviewed all previous investigations on use of melatonin in dyslipidemia found from PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, Scopus and web of Science up to January 2012. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 11 clinical trials and 43 nonclinical trials (18 in vitro and 25 animal studies) were included and reviewed. Most of the results reveal the potency of melatonin as an antioxidant in preventing lipid peroxidation through different mechanisms and therefore, improving the lipid profile. Melatonin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, neutralizes free radicals, increases antioxidative enzymes and glutathione levels, prevents electron leakage from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, acts synergistically with vitamin C, E and glutathione, reduces levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore prevents Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and decreases lipid peroxidation. The results indicate a need for further studies on safety/efficacy measures if melatonin was used in long-term.
  Amir Hashemi Meshkini , Khosro Keshavarz , Zahra Gharibnaseri , Shekoufeh Nikfar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication in diabetic patients which is accompanied with substantial economic burden regarding the productivity loss and medical therapy. In this study, we analyzed the cost efficacy of pregabalin for treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain in Iran. To evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin, we conducted a systematic review of published articles by searching on PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar. The keywords were: “pregabalin”, “neuropathic pain”, “diabetic peripheral neuropathy”. The “mean pain score” and also “percentage of patients with more than 50% pain reduction” were the outcome of interest for evaluation of efficacy of drug in peripheral neuropathic pain. For calculation of cost, only direct medical costs were evaluated. The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was compared with one and three times of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita as threshold to evaluate if the treatment is “highly cost effective”, “cost effective” and “not cost effective”. Out of 8476 evaluated papers, finally five articles were included in the study which met our inclusion criteria. All of these reports were Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of the comparison of pregabalin with placebo. Considering the efficacy extracted from the reports, pregabalin 75 and 150 mg day-1 did not have any significant efficacy in comparison with placebo. In pregabalin 300 mg day-1, the ICER range for generic and brand pregabalin were 6-200 and 63-2059, respectively. Accordingly, for generic and brand pregabalin (600 mg day-1), they were 11-755 and 78-5333 US Dollars (USD) per one more score reduction in mean pain score compared with placebo that could be seen as highly cost effective treatment. Our analysis indicated that pregabalin (300 mg day-1 or 600 mg day-1) is highly cost effective treatments in both generic and brand forms. Considering the same efficacy of generic and brand pregabalin, it seems more rational to include generic pregabalin in positive list of reimbursement, although both of them are cost effective.
  Amir Farshchi , Shekoufeh Nikfar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available
  Habib Shojaei Saadi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available.
  Hadi Mirfazaelian , Shekoufeh Nikfar , Saeed Derakhshani and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Anal fistula is an abnormal connection between the anal or rectal lumen and perianal skin that reduce quality of life. There are various surgical options for treatment with variable success rate. A novel treatment is to seal the fistula tract using biomaterials (fibrin glue and fibrin plug). Objective of this study was to evaluate the healing efficacy and incontinence rate of biomaterials (fibrin glue and fibrin plug) in comparison to surgical interventions in the treatment of cryptoglandular perianal fistula using meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched for clinical trial studies investigated the effects of biomaterials in the treatment of fistula-in-ano. Studies on patient with anal fistulae underwent fibrin glue, fibrin plug or other biomaterials application and surgical management for healing of fistula were included. Clinical response and incontinence were the key outcomes of interest. Six randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials consisting 315 patients in various arms met our criteria (comparing biomaterial with surgical interventions) and were included in the analysis. Pooling of data showed that effectiveness of biomaterials in comparison to surgical interventions was non-significant with relative risk (RR) of 0.73 (95% CI of 0.31-0.89, p = 0.096). The incontinence rate RR in biomaterials and intervention was also non significant with RR of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.05-2.28, p = 0.27). The included clinical trials had different follow-up durations, causes of fistula and method of intervention in treated patients. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the effectiveness and incontinence rate of biomaterials and conservative treatment is not significantly different.
  Roja Rahimi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The purpose of this study is to review all of these preparations and evaluate their efficacy and safety. Electronic databases were searched to obtain studies about the efficacy of locally used medications in the management of post-hemorrhoidectomy complications. Data were collected for the years 1966 to 2012 (up to September). Finally 24 relevant studies were included. The topical preparations used include botulinum toxin, Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs), Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN), local anesthetics, metronidazole, opioids, sucralfate and one herbal cream mainly consist of Aloe vera. Overall, topical preparations showed encouraging results in reducing pain and analgesic use and improving wound after hemorrhoidectomy. Because of better bioavailability and lower incidence of adverse events compared with other dosage forms, it is suggested to use topical preparations especially those with confirmed efficacy in the following order o GTN, CCBs, metronidazole, local anesthetics, sucralfate and botulinum toxin.
  Soodabeh Saeidnia and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available.
  Habib Shojaei Saadi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available.
  Roja Rahimi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Hemorrhoidal disease is a common problem which is usually not managed properly with pharmacologic interventions and will eventually require surgery. However, there are many medicinal plants that were successfully used for the treatment of hemorrhoids in the traditional and folk medicine of different countries. In this study, these medicinal plants have been reviewed and their mechanism of action and their major chemical constituents responsible for their activities have been assessed individually. Among various herbal medicines, Aesculus hippocastanum, Boswellia species, Cissus quadrangularis, Euphorbia prostrata, Juniperus species, Melastoma malabathricum, Myrtus communis and Verbascum species have got higher support from scientific evidence. These medicinal plants may exert their beneficial effects in hemorrhoids by their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and venotonic activities. Several chemical constituents were identified in these plants which may be responsible for their pharmacological activities, of which, flavonoids, terpenoids, triterpenes and tannins are the majors.
  Mohammad Hosein Farzaei , Roja Rahimi , Zahra Abbasabadi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Many medicinal plants have been identified in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) for the treatment of Peptic Ulcer (PU) but they are still unknown to scientific community. In the present study anti PU activity of these remedies were systematically reviewed and identified. For this purpose, medicinal plants proposed for the management of PU in TIM were collected from TIM sources and they were searched in modern medical databases like PubMed, Scirus, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar to find studies confirmed their efficacy. Findings from modern investigations support the claims of TIM about the efficacy of many of these plants in PU. For example, the oleogum resin of Boswellia carterii and B. serrata as a beneficial remedy for PU in TIM were demonstrated to have wound healing, cytoprotective, antisecretory, antacid, prostaglandin production and inflammatory modulating properties. Fruit and leaves of Myrtus communis was found to be antioxidant, anti H. pylori, wound healing, antisecretory, antacid and cytoprotective. The aerial part from Melissa officinalis exerts its beneficial effects in PU by antioxidant, anti H. pylori, prostaglandin elevating, cytoprotective, antisecretory, antacid and leukotriene reducing properties. Furthermore, Polygonum species demonstrated its function on PU with prostaglandin enhancement, inflammatory modulation, wound healing, cytoprotection, antacid, antioxidant and anti-H. pylori activity. In contrast, for some of herbal remedies used in TIM such as Dolichos lablab flower, Symphytum species, Zizyphus spina-christi fruit, Alisma plantago-aquatica, Cupressus sempervirens fruit, Acacia Arabica gum, Cyperus species root, Althaea officinalis flower and Nymphaea alba flower there is no enough evidence in modern medicine to prove their effectiveness in the management of PU. Pharmacological and clinical studies for evaluation of efficacy of these herbs in PU and their possible mechanisms of action are recommended.
  Soodabeh Saeidnia , Azadeh Manayi and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Not Available.
  Roja Rahimi , Shekoufeh Nikfar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The use of herbal medicine for the management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is increasing. The aim of the present study is to compare the efficacy and tolerability of herbal medicines with 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASAs) in IBD by conducting a meta-analysis. For this purpose, electronic databases were searched for studies comparing efficacy and/or tolerability of herbal medicines with 5-ASAs in different types of IBD. The search terms were: “herb” or “plant” or “herbal” and “inflammatory bowel disease”. Data were collected from 1966-2013 (up to Feb). The “clinical response”, “clinical remission”, “endoscopic response”, “endoscopic remission”, “histological response”, “histological remission”, “relapse”, “any adverse events” and “serious adverse events” were the key outcomes of interest. Eight placebo controlled clinical trials met criteria and were included. Comparison of herbal medicine with 5-ASAs yielded the following results: a significant Relative Risk (RR) of 1.28 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.07-1.54, p = 0.008) for clinical remission; a significant RR of 1.19 (95% CI = 1.01-1.39, p = 0.04) for clinical response; a non-significant RR of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.34-2.12, p = 0.73) for endoscopic remission; a non-significant RR of 1.14 (95% CI: 0.99-1.3, p = 0.07) for endoscopic response; a non-significant RR of 0.8 (95% CI: 0.05-13.72) for histological remission; a non-significant RR of 1.32 (95% CI: 0.64-2.9) for histological response; a non-significant RR of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.6-1.83, p = 0.87) for relapse; a non-significant RR of 1.31 (95% CI: 0.8-2.14, p = 0.28) for any adverse events; and a non-significant RR of 1.8 (95% CI: 0.13-24.5, p = 0.66) for serious adverse events. Overall, the efficacy and tolerability of herbal medicines in IBD is comparable to 5-ASAs, but the evidence is too limited to make any confident conclusion. Further high quality, large controlled trials are still needed.
  Shilan Mozaffari and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The condition of activated inflammation in the intestine is known as Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) which is more frequent in premature infants. Various studies have being carried out to find effective protections or therapies based on recognized pathophysiology of the disease. In the present review, all possible mechanisms and existing evidences at experimental or clinical levels have been analyzed. The main target is the modulation of inflammation by use of immune modulators and anti-oxidants. Pentoxifylline (Ptx) exhibits immunomodulatory effects via decreasing the synthesis of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), interlukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. It exerts anti-oxidant properties via scavenging hydroxyl radicals and inhibiting the xanthine oxidase. Therefore Ptx is deemed an option in the management of NEC in premature infants if proper clinical trials confirm its safety in neonates.
  Somayyeh Karami-Mohajeri , Abbas Jafari and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Aluminum Phosphide (AlP) is an active ingredient of fumigant pesticide which is commonly used in developing countries in order to control pests in stored grain. Acute poisoning with AlP usually occurs in committed suicide through ingestion of its tablets. AlP releases fatal phosphine gas in contact with hydrochloric acid of the stomach. Its detrimental clinical features may range from nausea and headache to vital organ failure and death. However, cardiovascular complications and refractory hypotension are the main cause of death. The exact mechanism of phosphine has not been proved in humans. However, it seems to work as a mitochondrial toxin with inhibition of cytochrome oxidase and cellular oxygen utilization. Since there is no specific antidote for acute AlP poisoning, management of cardiovascular disorders can be an appropriate approach to save poisoned patients. This article reviews cardiovascular toxicities associated with AlP and current therapeutic approaches and tries to clarify possible ways to treat this complication.
  Haji Bahadar , Faheem Maqbool and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Phthalates are synthetic chemicals used in many products of both industrial and medical importance. Approximately three million metric tons of phthalates are produced worldwide annually and are used in various sectors. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most commonly used plasticizers. Chemically, they are loosely attached to Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) based materials and with passage of time, leach to the surrounding environment. Phthalates are released from various sources and humans are exposed via, ingestion or inhalation. Different types of phthalates are used in the manufacture of coated and sustained releases drug formulations, as approved by FDA. Phthalates have been enlisted as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) with proven toxicity on various hormone controlled functions. Currently, besides medical devices, over the counter and prescription drugs contain certain quantity of phthalate as excipient. In certain chronic diseases, treating patient with such drugs may be an additional direct exposure to phthalates toxicity. So, on the basis of gathered evidences there is a need to seriously consider this type of direct human exposure and prevent already suffering people from being chronically poisoned with phthalates.
  Soodabeh Saeidnia and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Cancer occurs when alterations of genetic material create an abnormal function leading to unregulated proliferation of cells in the body. Cancer remains as one of the most predominant illnesses causing death, where each year more than 10 million people are identified worldwide. Due to restrictions and side effects observed from various chemotherapeutic anti-cancer drugs, as well as thousands of secondary metabolites formed in plants and other natural organisms, there is a high trend, toward novel drug discovery from natural sources. It seems that high throughput screenings based on reverse pharmacology and reverse pharmacognosy might result in more successful approaches in the future. The main objective of this review is to exhibit an up-to-date comprehensive overview on the recently identified natural antitumor compounds from various natural origins including plants, fungi, endophytic fungi and marine organisms. In order to facilitate the anticancer drug discovery and development, new strategies might be considered such as biotechnology and nanoparticle targeting approaches. The reverse pharmacognosy and its complementary the reverse pharmacology which are associated with high throughput screening, virtual screening and knowledge databases from traditional medicine, provide successful and strong tools to accelerate the process of future drug discovery.
  Hadi Mirfazaelian , Shekoufeh Nikfar , Mohammad-Amin Rezvanfar and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The present study is a meta-analysis of clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and were searched for studies investigating the effects of FFP in the treatment of OP poisoning. Mortality, intermediate syndrome (IMS) and hospital stay duration were the key outcomes of interest. Data were searched in the time period of 1966 through April 2014. Three studies that met our inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Pooling of data showed that the Relative Risk (RR) of mortality in OP poisoning for three included trials comparing FFP to placebo was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.28 to 2.07 (P = 0.6)). The summary of RR for IMS in 2 studies was 0.74 with 95% CI = 0.05 to 10.99 (P = 0.83). The summary of a standard effect for the hospital stay duration in OP poisoning for two trials comparing FFP with placebo was -0.37 with 95% CI = -4.68 to 3.94. According to these data, FFP effect on OP poisoning in mortality, hospital stay duration and IMS incidence was not significant.
  Hadi Mirfazaelian , Shekoufeh Nikfar , Amir-Ahmad Salarian and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The present study is a meta-analysis on clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of oximes on organophosphorus (OP) intoxication treatment. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and were searched for studies investigating the effects of oximes in the treatment of OP poisoning. Mortality, intermediate syndrome, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate, hospital stay duration and intubation rate were the key outcomes of interest. Data were searched in the time period of 1966 through April 2014. Thirteen studies (eleven clinical trials and two historical cohorts) that met our criteria were included in the analysis. Pooling of data showed that Relative Risk (RR) of need for intubation in OP poisoning for ten included trials comparing oximes with placebo was 1.18 with 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.84 (p = 0.27). RR of the single observational study was 1.57 (95% CI = 0.79 to 3.2, p>0.05). The summary of RR for mortality rate in 11 studies was 1.4 (95% CI = 0.77 to 2.54, p = 0.41) and for two observational studies was 1.19 (95% CI = 0.5 to 2.85, p>0.05). The RR for ICU admission rate in OP poisoning for three trials comparing oximes to placebo was 2.12 with 95% CI = 0.89 to 5.03 (p = 0.09). For the single observational study, RR was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.49 to 1.25, p>0.05). For intermediate syndrome while the RR of only trial comparing oximes with placebo was 1.89 (95% CI = 1.27 to 2.91, p<0.05), for the single observational study, it was 1.43 (95% CI = 0.7 to 2.96, p>0.05). For hospital stay duration (difference), the RR of four studies was 0.75 with 95% CI = -0.51 to 1.99. According to these data, oximes beneficence in OP poisoning is unclear and there is a potential increase in the incidence of intermediate syndrome.
  Mohammad Hossein Asghari , Soodabeh Saeidnia and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Phthalates are a large group of chemicals, used in plasticizers and industrial solvents, to make them flexible and soluble, especially when these materials are applied in the production of toys, medical equipment and drugs coverings. It seems that phthalates induce multi-organ damage through a number of mechanisms such as oxidative stress via generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupting cell function and also altering the expression and activity of the most important antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we reviewed the recent publications that evaluated the contribution of oxidative stress in phthalate toxicity. Alteration of antioxidant enzymes such as a reduced SOD (Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) activity as well as an increased CAT (catalase) function normally occur and can be observed particularly with higher doses of phthalates. Moreover, these compounds decrease GPX (glutathione peroxidase) and GST (glutathione S-transferase) activities. Nevertheless, controversy is found in the levels of cellular antioxidants like SOD showing a reduction in many organs like liver, kidney and reproductive system, whereas, its increase has been reported in a few studies. In summary, among various organs, reproductive system seems was affected further by oxidative stress through disruption of spermatogenesis, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction in gonocytes, impairment of cellular redox mechanism and increasing peroxiredoxin 3 and cycloxygenase 2 levels in spermatocytes. The phthalates are being replaced in some countries by other safe plasticizers.
  Mohammad Hosein Farzaei , Roja Rahimi , Fatemeh Farzaei and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease associated with impaired insulin secretion, developing insulin resistance as well as β-cell dysfunction, that leads to abnormal glucose, protein and lipid metabolism, inflammatory responses and oxidative damages. Traditional medicines suggest a wide range of remedies for the management of symptomatologies associated with chronic disorders including diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study is to elicit the most popular traditionally used medicinal plants for diabetes and review literatures in order to scientifically evaluate their efficacy and safety in diabetes mellitus and its complications. In addition, their molecular and cellular mechanisms of action along with active phytochemical agents were highlighted. The findings demonstrated that traditional herbal remedies perform their antidiabetic potential through different cellular and molecular mechanisms, including enhancing insulin secretion, regeneration of pancreatic β-cell, improving insulin resistance, α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity and anti-inflammatory effects as well as attenuating diabetes associated oxidative stress. Suppressing hepatic glucose output and enhancing glucose uptake as key contributors in antidiabetic effect of natural remedies are mediated via stimulating glycolysis, glucose oxidation and glycogenesis, along with reducing glycogen degradation and gluconeogenesis. Since traditional natural remedies are commonly used by diabetic patients, interaction between herbs and conventional antidiabetics has also been highlighted in this study. Overall, traditional herbal remedies are possible antihyperglycemic therapeutic adjuncts and potential source of new orally active agent(s) for management of diabetes; however, more well-designed clinical trials are suggested to recognize higher levels of evidence for the confirmation of their efficacy and safety.
  Mohammad Hadi Goharbari , Amir Shadboorestan and Mohammad Abdollahi
  Oxidative stress condition which is due to increased cellular free radicals has a main role in cell injury. Although free radicals are generated in normal metabolism, they may also be produced in excessive amounts during pathological conditions such as oxygen toxicity, drug overdose, chemical toxicity, ischemic-hypoxic injury and so on. The main parts of free radicals are Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which are mainly generated in cellular respiration. Increase in amount of ROS in pathological conditions can disturb mitochondrial function and make cellular damage. Thyroid hormones can act as a cytoprotective and antioxidant by inducing and activating some defense mechanisms against increased free radicals and mitochondrial oxidative stress. To review and categorize underlying mechanisms for the inhibitory effects of thyroid hormones on mitochondrial oxidative stress, Medline, Scopus and Web of science were searched for in vitro , in vivo, animal and human studies reporting antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of thyroid hormones in oxidative stress. After excluding duplicate, irrelevant and old articles the studies which had eligible criteria from 1980-2015 were included. Fifty one studies were included and evaluated in our study. It was found that thyroid hormones can induce cytoprotective and mitochondrial antioxidant effects through three mechanisms, consisting of increased activity and expression of uncoupling proteins, increased activity of mitoKATP channels, and increased activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes. Thyroid hormones have antioxidant effects through different mechanisms. More studies are needed to determine probable further mechanisms for thyroid hormones antioxidant effects and to confirm tissue hypothyroidism in oxidative stress.
  Haleh Talaie , Abdolkarim Pajoumand , Reyhaneh Panahandeh , Behjat Barari , Maryam Baeeri and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of serum IL-1b and TNF-α in depressed patients who treated or non-treated or poisoned with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in comparison to healthy subjects. In this prospective comparative study, patients were selected from those admitted at Loghman-Hakim Hospital from August 2007 to January 2008. Serum level of IL-1b and TNF-α were compared among group of subjects (10 in each) of healthy subjects, TCA-poisoned patients, TCA-treated depressed patients and non-treated depressed patients. Demographic and clinical data were collected by a questioner filled out by a trained practitioner in daily clinical management. Blood was tested for liver function, blood cells, electrocardiography and arterial blood gases. Complete blood analysis and demographic data did now show significant change between groups. IL-1b level was higher among females. The group of depressed patients non-treated with TCAs showed higher serum levels of IL-1b and TNF-α than other groups. No significant difference was observed in IL-1b and TNF-α values among healthy control, depressed TCA-treated and TCA-poisoned groups. It is concluded that depression and gender may influence the production of cytokines while neither TCAs treatment nor its overdose affect IL-1b and TNF-α.
  Ali Fani , Ali Akbar Malekirad , Iman Fani , Habib Allahnazem , Kobra Rahzani , Akram Ranjbar , anaz Vosough-Ghanbari and Mohammad Abdollahi
  The aim of this study was to determine the anti-oxidative stress capacity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) when administered in a controlled manner to radiology unit staff which are exposed to persistent low-dose radiation. A group of 27 radiology unit staff were invited to drink CZ (0.5 g powder mixed with 300 mL boiled water) twice daily for 2 weeks. Blood samples before and after entering the study was measured for lipid peroxidation level (LPO), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total thiol molecules (TTM). The results indicated a significant increase in plasma TAC (p = 0.0001) and TTM (p = 0.05) and a significant reduction in plasma LPO (p = 0.044). CZ has marked antioxidant potency and can alleviate complications of illnesses related to oxidative stress in radiology unit staff. CZ is recommended to be used as a dietary supplement for radiation protection.
  Mohammad Abdollahi
  During 2007 and 2008, soil samples of wheat and barley fields of the cold regions of the Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province were surveyed for cereal cyst nematode. In 65% of samples cysts were seen. Morphological and morphometrics of cysts, cone top structure and second stage juveniles of the isolated populations were studied. Detailed taxonomic studies revealed the existence of H. filipjevi. This is the first report of the species in the province.
  Hanieh Azimi , Mehrnaz Fallah-Tafti , Maliheh Karimi-Darmiyan and Mohammad Abdollahi
  To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene and α-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs.
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