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Articles by Mohamed Neffati
Total Records ( 8 ) for Mohamed Neffati
  Hanen Najjaa , Khaled Zerria , Sami Fattouch , Emna Ammar and Mohamed Neffati
  Total polyphenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant and antibacterial activities of bulb, leaf and flower extracts of the North African endemic plant Allium roseum were studied using three different solvents. Flower and leaf TPCs were found significantly higher than that of bulb with the highest values in methanolic extracts reaching 736.65 ± 88.67 and 749.54 ± 129.15 mg catechol equivalent/100 g of dry material, respectively. The same trend was observed for antioxidant potentials using DPPH. and ABTS.+ scavenging methods. Moreover, the A. roseum phenolic extracts strongly inhibited the growth of a range of microorganisms. Multivariate analysis showed that the extraction solvent and the plant material significantly affected the quantity and bioactivity of the phenolics. Almost all extracts exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity; however, the highest values were found in the methanolic extracts of leaves and flowers. These results provide the basis for the use of this edible spontaneous species for functional food ingredients and/or supplements.
  Sami Zouari , Hanen Najjaa , Mohamed Neffati and Emna Ammar
  This study deals with the chemical characterization of a medicinal and an aromatic plant of the Tunisian flora: Allium roseum var. odoratissimum, and aimed to identify new bioactive natural compounds in its flower essential oil. These compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, using an apolar column. The most important compounds characterized were organo-sulphurous (46%), including methyl 2-propenyl trisulfide, di-2-propenyl trisulfide, di-1-propenyl disulfide, di-2-propenyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, methyl 2-propenyl disulfide, and di-1-propenyl trisulfide, found as 10.75, 9.07, 5.81, 4.98, 3.90, 3.30, and 2.53%, respectively. Moreover, heneicosane and pentacosane were identified for the first time at relatively high rates (8.18 and 4.49%, respectively) in the Allium roseum essential oil. This essential oil composition exhibited newly identified sulphurous compounds at relatively high rates (46.53%) when compared with what was found while using polar column.
  Jamila Zammouri , Azaiez Ouled Belgacem and Mohamed Neffati
  This study deals with the germination and emergence behaviours of seeds and bulbs of four different accessions of Allium roseum L., a typically Mediterranean species considered as potential condiment with good flavour. Experiments were conducted both in laboratory and in field and several parameters were monitored in order to assess and compare the germination behaviour of four accessions of Allium roseum collected from four sites located along and aridity gradient in Southern Tunisia. The main achieved results show that the germination capacity of bulbs of the species is very low and does not exceed 30% for all studied accessions. The variation of seedlings emergence in the field constitutes an adaptation indicator of these accessions to aridity and drought confirmed by the presence of a high interaction between the reproduction mode and the environmental conditions. The accessions of the septentrional zones tend to be regenerated by an asexual multiplication (bulbs) whereas, those coming from the meridional (drier) zones tend to be regenerated by the sexual way (seeds). Survival of Allium roseum seedlings in Tunisian arid regions counts, therefore, on a sexual propagation much more than on a vegetative propagation.
  Mohamed Tarhouni , Azaiez Ouled Belgacem , Mohamed Neffati and Belgacem Hench
  In this reserch we review the effects of animal activities on plant life history strategies (CRS) around watering points using phyto-ecological studies and vegetation cover data. The objective of this study was to understand the impact of disturbance degree simulated by distance from wells on CRS strategies (Grime types). The main results indicate that annualisation is a reality. We show the dominance of RS-species in the more disturbed sites (nearest transect from watering points), CRS- and CS-species at medium disturbance and CS- and S-species in lower disturbance sites (further from water). The floristic homogenisation is discernible at long period of exploitation. With lower grazing disturbance, Stipagrostis pungens can appropriately survive but it cannot tolerate the high degradation levels.
  Mustapha Gorai , Ahmedou M. Vadel , Mohamed Neffati and Habib Khemira
  The present study deal with the physiological behavior of Phragmites communis under salt stress. The effects of salinity on growth, dry weight partitioning, water status and ion content were studied on seedlings of P. communis fed with nutrient solutions containing 0 to 600 mM NaCl. The plants grew best when irrigated with distilled water; biomass production and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) decreased with increasing salinity. Nevertheless, plants were able to produce and allocate dried matter to all their organs even at the highest salt level (600 mM NaCl). The leaves showed the lowest growth activity. Increasing salinity was accompanied by a decrease in seedling water content; aerial parts were more dehydrated than roots. Examination of the K+/Na+ selectivity revealed that salt tolerance of reed plants may be due to its capacity to limit Na+ transport and to enhance K+ transport into aerial parts resulting in a high K/Na ratio. Our results suggest an exclusive behavior towards Na+ as shown by the decreasing Na+ gradients from leaves to roots. It is concluded that Na+ exclusion mechanism appeared to be operative and contributes to salt tolerance of Phragmites.
  Raoudha Abdellaoui , Faouzia Yahyaoui and Mohamed Neffati
  Retama raetam is a stem-assimilating, C3, evergreen, medicinal plant species, desert legume common to arid ecosystems around the Mediterranean basin. This study addresses the genetic diversity and relationship among and within three populations collected from different habitats in southern Tunisia by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Estimates of the percentage of polymorphic bands, Shannon’s diversity information index and Nei’s gene diversity index were determined. Results showed that population from the Island Djerba has the lowest Nei’s gene diversity; this also was for Shannon diversity index. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that the majority of variation existed within populations (68%) and that there was significant differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.316, p<0.001). Genetic distance (ΦPT based values) between pair-wise populations ranged from 0.098 to 0.505 and the differentiation between pair-wise populations was significant when individual pairs of populations were compared. Based on the coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst), gene flow (Nm) was estimated and was found to vary from 0.490 to 4.609 between pair-wise populations and 1.42 among populations. The results of UPGMA cluster analysis and PCoA analysis indicated that most variation occurred within populations and that genetic differentiation had happened between populations. These findings are important for a better understanding of the adaptive strategy of R. raetam in southern Tunisia and will be useful for conservation managers to work out an effective strategy to protect this important species.
  Riadh Hammami , Abdelmajid Zouhir , Jeannette Ben Hamida , Mohamed Neffati , Gerard Vergoten , Karim Naghmouchi and Ismail Fliss
  Seed extracts of three plant species that grow wild in the arid regions of Tunisia, Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Pistacia atlantica Desf. (Anacardiaceae), and Oudneya africana R. Br. (Brassicaceae), were examined for antimicrobial activity against bacterial food pathogens. Aqueous extracts were prepared and then precipitated with methanol or acetone. Extracted acetone fractions (pH7.2) showed powerful antimicrobial activity, especially against Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Listeria ivanovii (Gram-positive) and were also active against Gram-negative strains Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts selected for high antimicrobial activity were stable in the presence of organic solvents (chloroform, hexane, acetonitrile, methanol, and acetone), and withstand thermal treatments up to 100°C for 30min. L. monocytogenes LSD530 and E. coli ATCC 25922 appeared to be inhibited by Juniperus and Pistacia extracts with a minimum concentration of 1.56 and 3.12mg/mL, respectively. This study established the potential of medicinal plants growing wild in arid regions of Tunisia as a source of antimicrobial agents.
  Faycal Boughalleb , Mounir Denden and Mohamed Neffati
  Zygophyllum album L., plants were exposed to NaCl salinity (0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mM NaCl) for 60 days. Moderate salinity (100-200 mM NaCl) had a stimulating effect on Relative Growth Rate (RGR), net CO2 assimilation (PN) and stomatal conductance (gs). At higher salinities levels (400-800 mM NaCl), these physiological parameters decreased significantly. Z. album PSII photochemistry was unaffected by salinity, only a slightly decrease in the efficiency of PSII (F’v/F’m) was occurred at 800 mM. The reduction in photosynthesis is most probably due to stomatal closure rather than damages in the photosynthetic apparatus. Increasing salinity from 400-800 mM NaCl caused a significant accumulation of H2O2 generation and lipid peroxidation and a concomitant decrease in membranes stability index. The antioxidative defence capacity of Zygophyllum album L., plants might be achieved by the increasing activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD) and Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) and the accumulation of phenols which showed to participate efficiently in restriction of oxidative damages caused by the H2O2 generation while Catalase (CAT) was unaffected under salt stress.
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