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Articles by Mohamed Mergoum
Total Records ( 3 ) for Mohamed Mergoum
  Jesse L. Underdahl , Mohamed Mergoum , Joel. K. Ransom and Blaine G. Schatz
  Periodic evaluation of cultivars allows researchers to evaluate genetic variation and progress made in various traits. Determining genetic gain or lack can lead researchers to develop new strategies for trait improvements. A two-year study was initiated in 2004 to examine the changes in agronomic performance of hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released by North Dakota State University (NDSU) over the past 40 years. The experiment was conducted in North Dakota at three sites in 2004 and two sites in 2005. The study included 33 HRSW genotypes laid out in a randomized complete-block design. Cultivars developed since 1968, three advanced lines developed by NDSU, and three cultivars released by other breeding programs were included in the study. The Canadian cultivar Marquis (released in 1911) was included for comparison purposes. Linear regression of cultivar means on year of release showed an annual increase in grain yield of 1.3% yr–1, grain-volume weight of 0.2% yr–1, and thousand-kernel weight of 0.3% yr–1 since 1968. There were also significant gains in lodging and disease resistance. Resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Roberge ex Desmaz. f. sp. tritici) and Fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schweinitz) Petch]) was substantially improved in genotypes released since 2002 and 2000, respectively. Therefore, we can conclude from this study that no evidence of a decline has occurred in the improvement of most agronomic traits and that breeders should be able to continue improving these traits by introgressing favorable alleles.
  Brian N. Otteson , Mohamed Mergoum and Joel K. Ransom
  The end-use value of hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) is determined by many factors including grain protein content (GPC), grain volume weight (GVW), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and milling and baking characteristics. These quality traits can be affected by environment, genotype, seeding rate, and nitrogen management. Experiments were conducted under dryland (Casselton, ND) and irrigated (Carrington, ND) conditions in 2003 to 2005 to determine the influence of seeding rate and N management on spring wheat quality in selected genotypes. Treatments consisted of a factorial combination of HRSW genotypes (‘Alsen’, ‘Briggs’, ‘Granite’, and ND 740), seeding rates (2.9 and 4.2 million seeds ha–1), N rate (140 and 224 kg ha–1 for the non-irrigated site, 168 and 280 kg ha–1 for the irrigated site), and timing of N application (pre-plant, 2-split applications, and 3-split applications). Genotype was the only factor that consistently affected the various quality traits measured. There were few interactions between factors and all involved genotype. GPC and GVW of Granite were 0.5 g kg–1 and 14 kg m–3 greater, respectively, than any of the other genotypes. Over all treatments, increasing the N rate increased the grain protein content by 8 g kg–1. GPC was correlated with loaf volume but negatively correlated with flour extraction. Applying N in three splits when compared to applying it all preplant increased baking absorption by 0.8%, increased the mixograph score by 0.4 units, and decreased mixing time by 0.2 min. Seeding rate did not result in a significant change in grain quality or milling and baking quality in this study. Overall, genotype was the most important factor in determining grain quality and milling and baking performance. To a lesser extent, N timing influenced grain quality, particularly in its mixing characteristics.
  Mohammed S. Alamri , Frank Manthey , Mohamed Mergoum , Elias Elias and Khalil Khan
  Wheat proteins especially the gluten proteins are the primary determinant of rheological properties and quality differences. The major objective of this study was to use the glutograph, a less used rheological instrument for evaluating quality differences of durum wheats. A positive and significant relationship was obtained between the stretching (strength) parameter of the glutograph and the following parameters: Dough Development Time (DDT) and Stability (ST) of the farinograph, Peak Time (PT) of the mixograph, the height of the curve of the alveograph and the resistance to extension of the extensograph. The relaxation parameter of the glutograph was highly correlated with Mixing Tolerance Index (MTI) of the farinograph for durum wheat samples. The glutograph appears to show good promise for quality evaluation of semolina samples for assessing dough strength among cultivars. The better pasta processing operating parameters during extrusion and quality evaluation characteristics were obtained with spaghetti made from strong gluten cultivars than those of spaghetti made from weak gluten cultivar of durum wheats.
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