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Articles by Mohamed Ibrahim
Total Records ( 3 ) for Mohamed Ibrahim
  Mahdi Nsaif Jasim and Mohamed Ibrahim
  k-clustering is one of the most common ways to divide the extracted data into clusters which is considered a type of knowledge discovery. While there is a great research effort to determine the key features of mass K, further investigation is needed to determine whether the optimal number of clusters can be found during the process based on the cluster quality scale. This study presents a modified k-means algorithm used to improve cluster quality and optimizing the optimal number of clusters. The k-means algorithm takes the number of clusters (k) as input from the user. But in the practical scenario, it is difficult to determine the number of clusters in advance. The evolution of the proposed method is equivalent to finding the value of the threshold. The suggested threshold value will be used as a distance between the center of each group and other group’s centers. Applying the modified algorithm improves the results of enter cluster is 0.111 and entra cluster is 0.0034.
  Mohamed Ibrahim , Bushra Hussein A. Malik and Moawia Gameraddin
  Chewing qat has been established to cause cardiovascular and various health problems. The study aims to explore the effects of chewing qat on hemodynamics of the common carotid arteries (CCAs). This is clinically important for quantifying the cerebral perfusion which is a key factor of cerebrovascular diseases. This was a descriptive quantitative study. A total of 200 of healthy non-qat volunteers were investigated with gray scale and Doppler sonography for assessment of common carotid arteries (CCAs) using a 7-10 MHz linear transducers according to a standard carotid sonography protocol. The CCAs hemodynamics, diameters and intima media thickness were assessed. The heart rate and blood pressure were taken on the left arm and measured at 3-5 min interval. The blood flow in CCAs was assessed using the Doppler parameters, peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, pulsatility index and resistive index. The Doppler parameters were measured before and after chewing qat. SPSS and paired sample t-test was used to analyze the results. A p-value<0.05 was considered to be significant. chewing qat had significantly raised the heart rate and blood pressure (p-value = 0.00 and 0.001, respectively). The blood resistivity and pulsatility of the common carotid arteries were significantly decreased after chewing qat. The peak systolic velocity and maximum end-diastolic velocity were significantly increased after chewing qat (p-values = 0.001 and 0.00, respectively). The diameters and intima media thickness of each CCA were not affected with qat chewing. Chewing qat has significant impact on the hemodynamics of the common carotid arteries, probably as a consequence of vasoconstrictor effect of qat on the blood vessels. This may affect the cerebral perfusion. Further studies are needed on possible morbidity of carotid arteries lesions associated with regular qat chewing.
  Moawia Gameraddin , Bushra Abdalmalik , Mohamed Ibrahim , Mustafa Mahmoud and Sultan A. Alshoabi
  Background and Objective: Khat has severe adverse socio-economic consequences. It causes serious cardiovascular, neurological and psychiatric problems. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of chewing khat on intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid arteries. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive case-control cross-sectional study. A total of 50 participants of chronic regular khat chewers were investigated. B-mode ultrasound 7-10 MHz linear transducers used for assessment of common carotid arteries according to the standard carotid sonography protocol. The IMT was measured and the presence of plaques was assessed. Results: The carotid IMT was significantly increased in regular khat chewers more than the controls (p-value = 0.016). The common carotid IMT increased in smokers more than non-smokers among khat chewers (0.6710±0.20687 vs. 0.5789±0.16859 mm). Significant correlations existed between the duration of chewing khat and age with the presence of plaque (p-values = 0.013 and 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between carotid plaque and longtime khat chewing. Khat is a contributory factor for increasing carotid intima-media thickness and formation of carotid plaques. A combination of khat and smoking produce more thickening of carotid intima-media.
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