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Articles by Mohamed A. Elwakil
Total Records ( 6 ) for Mohamed A. Elwakil
  Ekbal M. Abo-Hashem , Mohamed A. Elwakil , Yasser M. Shabana , Mohamed A. El-Metwally , Ghada El-Kannishy , Rokiah Anwar , Eman Fawzy , Mostafa Elzayat and Narmin Saied
  Background and Objective: The liver is the main metabolic organ, carcinogen-metabolizing liver enzymes are the most important candidates that may influence hepatocarcinogenesis associated with heavy metal overload. This study was aimed at analyzing the genetic pattern regarding the proto-oncogene (L-myc) and the cytochrome (CYP2E1), which are involved in detoxification and oncogenesis, in both HCC patients and controls and to study the likelihood of each genetic pattern to develop HCC in the presence of heavy metals load. Materials and Methods: Total 171 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were included and 143 matched healthy controls in this study. Routine laboratory tests and heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury) concentration were measured. Genetic polymorphisms was detected by a PCR-RFLP method. Student’s t-test and SPSS software used for statistical analysis. Results: C2 allele and C2 containing genotypes of CYP2E1 showed a significant higher percentage in HCC group (p = <0.001). Distribution of different L-myc genotypes in HCC and control groups showed nonsignificant difference ( p = 0.140). As regards the heavy metals concentration in carriers of different genotypes of both CYP2E1 and L-myc revealed no significant difference except for mercury which reported higher levels with the mutant homozygote genotype of L-myc (p = 0.015). Conclusion: There was no significant association between gene polymorphisms and heavy metal burden within HCC patients. It is also noted that CYP2E1 polymorphisms may increase HCC susceptibility while L-myc gene polymorphism showed non significant difference between HCC patients group and control group.
  Mohamed A. Elwakil and Mohamed A. El-Metwally
  Fifty seed samples of peanut seed collected from the commercial markets of Egypt were tested for the presence of seed-borne fungi. Twenty-seven fungal species were isolated and identified. Use of the blotter seed health testing method resulted in the isolation of a larger number of seed-borne fungi than the deep freezing method. The deep freezing method was more effective for the isolation of Aspergillus nidulans, A. versicolor and A. carneus, while the blotter method was more effective for the isolation of Alternaria alternate, Mucor sp., Chaetomium sp. and Stemphylium sp. Isolation of Cephalosporium sp. was the first record of the fungus on peanut seeds in Egypt. No previous reports of this fungus on peanut were found.
Pathogenicity tests showed that Sclerotium bataticola had a significant effect on seed emergence, followed by Fusarium solani, in seed inoculation experiments. Rhizoctonia solani showed a highly significant effect, followed by Sclerotium betaticola, in soil infestation treatments of Giza 4 and Giza 5 cultivars.
Transmission of Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme, Cephalosporium sp. and Verticillium sp. from seed to mature plant of peanut showed that their translocation gradually decreased from the terminal part of the root towards the upper portions of the plants. The five tested fungi were reisolated from all plant portions in Giza 4 and Giza 5 cultivars, except Verticillium sp. while several attempts failed to reisolated it from the middle and upper parts of the stem or shoot tips.
The present investigation studied the detect, identify and survey the seed-borne fungi of local and introduced seeds in Egypt, study the nature of isolated fungi and their effect on peanut plants and elucidate the transmission of some pathogen fungi from seed to mature plant.
  Mohamed A. Elwakil
  Pre-sowing treatment of peanut seeds with antioxidant hydroquinone with 20 mM water solution for 12 h significantly decreased the incidence of seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium spp., Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium bataticola, Trichothicium sp. and Cladosporium sp. Cephalosporium sp. and Bipolaris sp., were completely inhibited. Hydroquinone also enhanced the growth parameters viz., plant height, root length, shoot length, plant weight, root weight, shoot weight, number of branches, pegs, pods and dry weight of plant producing a 50% increase in yield from 1080 to 1555 kg/acre.
  Khalid M. Ghoneem , Wesam I.A. Saber and Mohamed A. Elwakil
  Verticillium dahliae attacks a wide range of plants including fennel causing a wilt disease. The fungus grows slowly on seeds when tested at the seed health laboratories. This habit character allows saprophytes to impair the fungal growth and interfere the identification on both Moist Blotters (MB) and the Deep-Freezing Blotters (DFB). Since, these two techniques are not efficient enough to detect this fungus, the researchers planned to search for an alternative technique for detecting this fungus. Soaking three layers of blotters used as seed-beds in water solutions alkalined with KOH or NaOH at pH 10 presents the optimum seed-bed condition for manifesting the fungus on seed. This seed-bed condition also suppress the growth of saprophytes, so as the fungus was transparently shown on seeds. The in vitro study presents pH 9.5 as the optimum condition for the growth, sporulation and maximum glucose coefficient of the fungus. So far, it is recommended to use the alkalined seed-bed when searching for V. dahliae on fennel seed.
  Wesam I.A. Saber , Khalid M. Ghoneem , Mohammed M. El-Metwally and Mohamed A. Elwakil
  An emerging problem for the wider adoption of anise plantation in Egypt is the damage caused by the rust fungus. The detailed description and taxonomic studies (using light and scanning electron microscopy) show that such an obligate parasite fungus (Puccinia pimpinellae) is autoecious microcyclic (uredinial-telial stage only). Among tested Apiaceae plants, the host range test proved the specificity of the rust fungus to anise. To the researcher’s knowledge, this is the first investigated record of a rust fungus on Pimpinella anisum plants in Egypt. The effectiveness of some plant resistance elicitors and two active chitinase producers; Bacillus subtilis Bio4 and isolated Trichoderma harizianum CH4 (both of them recorded the highest clear zone/colony size ratio on chitin agar plates) in controlling anise rust disease and on growth and yield of anise were evaluated in two successive growing seasons. Spraying chitosan at 1000 ppm was the most potent in reducing Disease Severity (DS) and Incidence (DI) as well as improving plant height, chlorophyll content, inflorescence No. plant-1 (74.2 and 76), 1000-fruit weight (2.94 and 2.83 g) and anise yield (646.8 and 670.0 kg fed-1), during both seasons. B. subtilis Bio4 and T. harizianum CH4 showed moderate effect on the tested parameters.
  Mohamed A. Elwakil , Ekbal M. Abo-Hashem , Yasser M. Shabana , Mohamed A. El-Metwally , Ghada El-Kannishy , Ali M. El-Adl , Rokiah Anwar , Eman Fawzy , Narmin Saied and Mustafa M. El-Zayat
  Background: Liver cancer is a widespread malady in Northern parts of Egypt, in which industrial and municipal heavy metals pollutants contaminate both water and soil used for growing edible field and vegetable crops. Materials and Methods: Case-control studies were carried out in three locations in North Delta region (Dakahlia, Kafr El-Sheikh and Damietta governorates) where lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury are common pollutants. Clinical examination of 143 HCC patients living in heavy metals-polluted areas and 171 healthy individuals living in relatively clean, non-polluted areas were carried out. The investigation was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology, histological examination and alpha-fetoprotein level analysis. Heavy metals assay in blood, plants, soil and water were carried out using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique and data were statistically analyzed. Results: Demographic and clinical data of patients with HCC show that levels of heavy metals under investigation (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) were significantly higher in the blood of HCC patients compared to control subjects. Conclusion: Results address a strong correlation between the occurrence of these heavy metals in blood of HCC patients and their levels in irrigation water, soil and edible plants.
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