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Articles by Mohamed A. El-Metwally
Total Records ( 4 ) for Mohamed A. El-Metwally
  Hoda M. Soliman , Mohamed A. El-Metwally , Maged Taher Elkahky and Wael E. Badawi
  Assessment the efficiency of fungal antagonists and chitosan as foliar application against cucumber grey mold was carried out in greenhouse condition. The evaluated antagonistic fungi were Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma viride, Gliocladium roseum and Gliocladium vireins. Chitosan was tested at three concentrations 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%. It was noticed that all treatments significantly reduced grey mold incidence in cucumber plants comparing with untreated plants. Among all tested antagonists, T. harzianum and T. viride better than others were in inhibiting disease incidence and improving plant defense against the pathogen. Chitosan treatments did not show antimicrobial activity against Botrytis cinerea isolates in vitro however, when it used as a foliar spray on greenhouse it showed a highly significant control level of grey mold disease. According to obtained results from the current study, it could be suggested that the application of antagonistic fungi and chitosan might be an easily applied, safely and cost effective alternative control method to chemical control of grey mold of cucumber.
  Mohamed A. Elwakil and Mohamed A. El-Metwally
  Fifty seed samples of peanut seed collected from the commercial markets of Egypt were tested for the presence of seed-borne fungi. Twenty-seven fungal species were isolated and identified. Use of the blotter seed health testing method resulted in the isolation of a larger number of seed-borne fungi than the deep freezing method. The deep freezing method was more effective for the isolation of Aspergillus nidulans, A. versicolor and A. carneus, while the blotter method was more effective for the isolation of Alternaria alternate, Mucor sp., Chaetomium sp. and Stemphylium sp. Isolation of Cephalosporium sp. was the first record of the fungus on peanut seeds in Egypt. No previous reports of this fungus on peanut were found.
Pathogenicity tests showed that Sclerotium bataticola had a significant effect on seed emergence, followed by Fusarium solani, in seed inoculation experiments. Rhizoctonia solani showed a highly significant effect, followed by Sclerotium betaticola, in soil infestation treatments of Giza 4 and Giza 5 cultivars.
Transmission of Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme, Cephalosporium sp. and Verticillium sp. from seed to mature plant of peanut showed that their translocation gradually decreased from the terminal part of the root towards the upper portions of the plants. The five tested fungi were reisolated from all plant portions in Giza 4 and Giza 5 cultivars, except Verticillium sp. while several attempts failed to reisolated it from the middle and upper parts of the stem or shoot tips.
The present investigation studied the detect, identify and survey the seed-borne fungi of local and introduced seeds in Egypt, study the nature of isolated fungi and their effect on peanut plants and elucidate the transmission of some pathogen fungi from seed to mature plant.
  Mohamed A. Elwakil , Ekbal M. Abo-Hashem , Yasser M. Shabana , Mohamed A. El-Metwally , Ghada El-Kannishy , Ali M. El-Adl , Rokiah Anwar , Eman Fawzy , Narmin Saied and Mustafa M. El-Zayat
  Background: Liver cancer is a widespread malady in Northern parts of Egypt, in which industrial and municipal heavy metals pollutants contaminate both water and soil used for growing edible field and vegetable crops. Materials and Methods: Case-control studies were carried out in three locations in North Delta region (Dakahlia, Kafr El-Sheikh and Damietta governorates) where lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury are common pollutants. Clinical examination of 143 HCC patients living in heavy metals-polluted areas and 171 healthy individuals living in relatively clean, non-polluted areas were carried out. The investigation was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology, histological examination and alpha-fetoprotein level analysis. Heavy metals assay in blood, plants, soil and water were carried out using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique and data were statistically analyzed. Results: Demographic and clinical data of patients with HCC show that levels of heavy metals under investigation (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) were significantly higher in the blood of HCC patients compared to control subjects. Conclusion: Results address a strong correlation between the occurrence of these heavy metals in blood of HCC patients and their levels in irrigation water, soil and edible plants.
  Hoda M. Soliman , Farkad H. Musa , Mohamed A. El-Metwally and Samia A. Haroun
  Background: Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt diseases in a wide variety of economically important crops. Control of plant diseases still relies mainly on the use of synthetic fungicides, but environmental and health concerns and the development of fungicide-resistant pathogens have stimulated the search for alternative control strategies. Materials and Methods: Fusarium oxysporum isolated from the roots of diseased mung bean plans collected from Aga district, Dahahlia, Egypt (F1) recorded the highest values of wilt disease incidence (50%) in the pathogenicity test. Results: Cytokinins at concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm and β-sitosterol at 10–1, 10–3, 10–5 and 10–7 M slightly reduced the linear growth of F. oxysporum on PDA solid medium. In the greenhouse experiment, the β-sitosterol at 10–5 M was the most effective treatment in reducing the incidence of wilt (11.38e) in mung bean plant infected with Fusarium oxysporum . The growth parameters of mung bean plants (root length, shoot length, root fresh and dry weight, shoot fresh and dry weight and No. of leaves per plant) were significantly increased at the treatments cytokinins at the concentration 100 ppm and β-sitosterol at the concentration 10–5 M. Similarly, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotonoids and total pigments) as well as the defense enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and catalase) activity and the content of total phenols were significantly increased by the same treatments. Also, the yield parameters (No. of pods per plant, weight of pods per plant, No. of seeds per plant and weight of seeds per plant) were significantly increased in mung bean plants non-infected and infected with Fusarium oxysporum treated with cytokinins at the concentration 100 ppm or β-sitosterol at the concentration 10–5 M. Conclusion: It is evident from the above results that, the resistance of mung bean plant to the used pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxyspurm) was more or less improved by priming the seeds in kinetin and β-sitosterol specially in response to 100 ppm kinetin and 10–5 M β-sitosterol, these plant growth regulators could be used, as safe compounds to improve the resistance of mung bean plant to fungal pathogens.
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