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Articles by Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
Total Records ( 10 ) for Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Mohd Ramzan Nur Hanisah , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Kasim Susilawati , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  This study was conducted to investigate whether a simple and rapid method could be developed for extracting, fractionating and purifying soil HA in forest rehabilitation programmes. Humic acids from 10 g of soil were extracted with 100 mL of 0.10 M NaOH. Different extraction periods (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h) were tested. Samples were centrifuged (16,211 G for 15 min) at the end of each extraction period. The dark-coloured supernatant liquor containing HA was decanted and the pH of the solution adjusted to 1.0 using 6 M HCl. After acidification, the fractionation periods evaluated were 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h. After each fractionation period, the sample was transferred to a polyethylene bottle and centrifuged (16,211 G for 10 min). The HA were purified by suspending them in 100 mL distilled water, centrifuged (16,211 G for 10 min). After repeating this procedure three times, the supernatant was analyzed for Na, Mg and K. Standard procedures were used to characterize the HA (C, E4/E6, phenolic OH, carboxylic COOH, total acidity) and soil (pH, C, organic matter). Although there was significant effect of different extraction periods on yield of HA, there was no significant relationship between fractionation period and yield of HA. There was also no significant relationship between fractionation periods and yield of HA for different extraction periods studied. In terms of purification, the distilled water used in this study was able to effectively purify HA (e.g., reduction in mineral matter such as Na+) of the soil without altering the true nature of HA as C, E4/E6, phenolic OH, carboxylic COOH, total acidity values of the acids were consistent with those reported in the literature. The significance of this work is that it enables the isolation of HA from soil within 9 h (4 h extraction period, 4 h fractionation period and 1 h purification period) instead of the existing range of 2-7 days, hence helping in facilitating the idea of producing for instance ammonium and potassium-humates from soils, a practice that could have less undesirable environmental effects.
  Susilawati Kasim , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid , Mohd Khanif Yusop and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Problem statement: Fertilizer N use efficiency is reduced by ammonia volatilization. Under low soil CEC and high pH, N from soil solution is released to the atmosphere. Ammonia loss due to low worldwide N use efficiency (33%) has been implicated in global warming. Thus, the objectives of this laboratory study were to evaluate the effectiveness of liquid humic and fulvic acids, isolated from tropical peat soils in reducing N loss from urea fertilizer as well as to investigate the ability of these acids to retain NH4+ and NO3¯ or reduce soil pH.
Approach: Formulated liquid N fertilizers consisting of urea and different types of humic molecules (HA or FA or mixture of both), solid and liquid urea were surface applied to 250 g of soil. A closed dynamic air flow system was used to trap NH3 loss in boric acid after which samples were titrated with 0.01 M HCl to estimate NH3 loss. After 30 days of incubation, the soil was air dried and analysed for pH, exchangeable NH4+, available NO3¯ and exchangeable cations. The results were analysed using SAS and treatments means were compared using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT).
Results:
The use of humic molecules reduced NH3 loss and increased exchangeable NH4+. The high CEC of Humic Acids (HA) made the LHA treatment the best in reducing N loss after surface application. The presence of HA and Fulvic Acids (FA) increased NH4+ recovery. Even though, the soil pH of all the treatments were high, significant reduction of N loss was observed for humic molecules treatments.
Conclusion:
The use of liquid organic N fertilizer has the ability to reduce NH3 volatilization in acid soil. The use of both humic and fulvic acids could be effective in promoting NH4+ retention. Thus, it can be concluding that, humic substances, in general, have great ability in controlling NH3 loss and retaining NH4+ in acid soils. It could be a cheapest, practical and easiest way to control N loss.
  Ch`ng Huck Ywih , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Problem statement: Peat has been identified as one of the major groups of soils found in Malaysia. Sarawak as the largest state in Malaysia has the biggest reserve of peat-land. There are about 1.5 million ha of peat-land in Sarawak, which are relatively under developed. As is the case with any plant, oil palm trees do sequester carbon as they grow. Nevertheless, the process of clearing forest in order to establish a plantation may release carbon. Little studies have been done on the comparison of soil organic matter, soil organic carbon and yield of humic acids when secondary forest on peat soil is converted to oil palm plantation. The objective of this study was to compare carbon storage of secondary forest and early stages of oil palm plantations on a tropical peat soil.
Approach:
Soil samples were collected from the secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantations in Tatau district, Sarawak. Ten samples were taken at random with a peat auger at 0-25 and 25-50 cm depths. The bulk densities at these depths were determined by the coring method. The bulk density method was used to quantify the total carbon, total organic matter, total nitrogen, humic acids and stable carbon at the stated sampling depths on per hectare basis.
Results:
There were no significant differences in the amounts of stable C of both secondary forest and different ages of the oil palm plantations at 0-25 and 25-50 cm soil depth. The amounts of stable C in the secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantations at 0-25 cm depth were generally higher than those in the 25-50 cm depth. This was attributed to higher yield of HA in the secondary forest, 1, 3, 4 and 5 year old oil palm plantations soil partly due to better humification at the 0-25 cm soil depth.
Conclusion:
Conversion of secondary forest on peat to initial stages of oil palm plantation seems to not exert any significant difference on carbon storage in tropical peat soil.
  Zuraidah Yahya , Aminuddin Husin , Jamal Talib , Jamarei Othman , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Problem statement: The impacts of soil compaction on crop yields have been studied extensively by soil scientists due to declining soil productivity associated with mechanisation. However, a relationship between machine-induced soil compaction and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) yield is unclear. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of mechanization on soil physical properties and the influence on oil palm yield. Approach: The palms were planted in Bernam series soil which is clay textured. Compaction treatments were imposed for 6 consecutive years. Comparisons were made between the effects of soil compaction caused by different trailer weights and monthly transportation frequency. Results: The results showed a beneficial effect of soil compaction on the oil palm yield. It significantly increased the yield with increased mean soil bulk density. The transportation frequency played a greater role than the trailer weight. After six years of soil compaction, there was a positive relationship between mean soil bulk density, porosity and oil palm yield. Conclusion: Thus compaction may not often be a problem.
  Shamsuddin Rosliza , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Kasim Susilawati , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Abstract: Problem Statement: The isolation (extraction, fractionation and purification) of humic acids (HA) from soils is laborious, time consuming and expensive. The extraction, fractionation and purification periods of these substances vary from 12 h-7 days. In order to facilitate production of HA at competitive cost, this study was conducted to investigate whether a simple and rapid procedure could be developed for isolation of HA from well decomposed tropical peat soils (Saprists). Approach: A 0.1 M KOH was used to isolate HA of air dry peat soil at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 h extraction periods after which samples (liquid obtained after centrifugation at 16,211 G for 15 min) were fractionated (using 6 M HCl) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 h. Samples were purified by washing them five times using distilled water instead of using HCl, HF, and an expensive process called dialysis that requires 1 to 7 days to purify HA. Each washing time was 10 min. Standard procedures were used to ascertain the purity (Ash, C, E4/E6, carboxylic, phenolic, total acidity, and K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and quantity of HA yield. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Although there was a linear relationship between extraction period and HA yield, there was no relationship between fractionation period and yield of HA. Distilled water used in this study was effective in purifying HA of the Saprists within 1 h without altering the true chemical nature of HA as it significantly reduced the mineral content of HA. Besides, C, E4/E6, carboxylic, phenolic, and total acidity of the isolated HA were typical of standard ones. Conclusion: The isolation of HA from peat soils can be reduced to 9 h (4 h extraction period, 4 h fractionation period and 1 h purification period) instead of the existing range of 1-7 days.
  Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Aminuddin Hussin , Husni Mohd Hanif Ahmad , Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh , Anuar Abd Rahim and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
 

Problem Statement: Ammonia loss significantly reduces urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce ammonia loss are laboratory oriented, as such limited in reflecting actual field conditions. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on soil pH, soil nitrate, soil exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions.
Approach:
The treatments evaluated were: (i) Normal N, P, K application (74.34 g urea, 27.36 g TSP, 24.12 g KCl) (T1), (ii) Urea-TSP mixture (74.34 g urea+27.36 g TSP)+24.12 g KCl (T2), (iii) 74.34 g urea+27.36 g TSP+9.0 g zeolite (T3), (iv) 74.34 g urea+27.36 g TSP+13.5 g zeolite (T4) and (v) No fertilization (T5). Note, the same amount of 24.12 g KCl was used in T3 and T4 plots. Standard procedures were used to determine the selected chemical properties of zeolite, soil, TSP and urea. The pH of the urea, zeolite, soil and TSP were determined in a 1:2.5 soil: distilled water suspension and/or 0.01 N CaCl2 using a glass electrode. The CEC of the zeolite was determined by the CsCl method. Soil CEC was determined by leaching with 1 N ammonium acetate buffer adjusted to pH 7.0 followed by steam distillation. Soil samples at harvest were analyzed for pH using the method previously outlined. Exchangeable ammonium and nitrate at harvest were extracted from the soil samples by the method of Keeney and Nelson and the amount determined using a LACHAT Autoanalyzer. Total N of the plant tissues (stem and leaf) was determined by the Micro-Kjeldhal method.
Results:
Urea amended with TSP and zeolite treatments and Urea only (urea without additives) did not have long term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf) production of Swan (test crop). All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved Urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment.
Conclusion:
Urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea.

  Shamsuddin Rosliza , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Problem statement: Ammonia volatilization from surface-applied urea may be substantial but it is possible to control it by mixing urea with acidic substances such as Humic Acids (HA) and Fulvic Acids (FA). The objective of this study was to compare the effects of urea-HA, urea-FA, urea-acidified (HA+FA) mixtures on ammonia loss, soil pH, soil exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate accumulation compared to urea alone. Approach: The effects of urea amended with or without HA and FA were evaluated in a laboratory condition using a closed-dynamic air flow system. Ammonia loss, soil pH, soil exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate were determined using standard procedures. Results: Humic acid alone was not effective in controlling ammonia volatilization even though ammonium retention was found to be significantly higher compared to urea alone. Fulvic acid significantly reduced ammonia volatilization by 50% compared to urea alone. It also caused the highest retention of soil exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate. However, there was no ammonia volatilization with acidified HA and FA. Ammonium and nitrate accumulation for FA was better than acidified HA and FA. Ammonia loss could be reduced by improving ammonium retention. It must be stressed that results obtained in the incubation experiment using an acidic (pHwater 6.32) soil of Typic Paleudults (Bekenu series) may only be applicable to similar acid soils. Conclusion: Urea amended with HA or HA and FA significantly reduced ammonia loss. The outcome of this study might be contributed to the improvement of urea N use efficiency as well as reducing environmental pollution.
  Regis Bernard , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Problem Statement: Application of urea as a source of nitrogen fertilizer has an adverse effect on ammoniacal loss to the environment. This study was conducted to reduce ammonia loss from urea by mixing with Humic Acids (HA) isolated from Saprists peat. Approach: The effects of urea amended with four different amounts of humic acids, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 g were evaluated in laboratory conditions using a closed dynamic air flow system. The mineral soil that was used as medium for the study was Bekenu series (typic paleudults). Amnonia loss, soil pH, exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and Na were determined using standard procedures. Results: All the treatments with HA significantly reduced ammoinia loss compared to urea alone. Increasing the amount of HA also significantly retained soil exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate. Treatments with HA had no significant effect on the concentrations of Mg, K and Ca, except for Na. The effect of HA in the mixtures on ammonia loss was related to their effect on the formation of ammonium over ammonia. Conclusion: Surface-applied urea fertilizer efficiency could be increased when coated with 1.00 g of HA.
  Ameera Abdul Reeza , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Nik Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Problem Statement: Ammonia volatilization is a major pathway for nitrogen loss from surface applied urea. While all top-dressed ammonia and ammonium based N fertilizers can volatilize, the potential loss is greatest with urea and fluids containing urea. As much as 20-50% of N applied to soils is lost through volatilization alone. Thus, the objective of this laboratory study was to reduce ammonia loss from urea via mixing with humic and fulvic acids isolated from coal. Approach: This study compared four different types of treatments which were urea without additives (T1), urea with humic acid-powdered form (T2), urea with fulvic acid-liquid form (T3) and urea with humic and fulvic acids-liquid form (T4). Comparisons were made based on ammonia loss, soil NH4 and NO3- contents as well as exchangeable cations in the treated soils. Soil samples from typic paleudults (Bekenu series) were used. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Daily ammonia loss from soil was measured using a modified closed-dynamic air flow system method. Results: All of the treatments with humic substances significantly reduced ammonia loss ranging between 13 and 25% compared to urea alone. The treatment with both humic and fulvic acids (T4) showed pronounced ammonia loss reduction. All treatments with humic substances significantly increased NH4+ and NO3- content in soil samples compared to urea alone except for treatment having humic acid alone (T2). Treatments with fulvic acid (T3 and T4) also showed significant increase in exchangeable K+ and Na+ compared to urea alone. The increase in the formation of NH4+ over NH3, soil exchangeable cations and temporary reduction of soil pH may had retarded urea hydrolysis in the immediate vicinity of the fertilizer. Conclusion: Surface applied urea fertilizer efficiency could be increased if applied together with humic and fulvic acids.
  Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Problem statement: Mixture of the right proportion of expanding and non-expanding clays to improve plasticity (moldability) of clays used in the pot industry of Malaysia is yet to be well investigated. In addition, little is known about the choice of the right clay size to eliminate or reduce the content of undesirable compounds such as Fe2O3, Al2O3 to improve the strength of pots and roofing tiles in the country. The objective of this study was to investigate how selected physico-chemical properties of pottery clay relate to grain size of Nyalau series ((Typic Paleudults). Approach: Soil samples were refined into 25, 20 and 63 μm using size grading method. The mineralogical composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using standard procedures. Firing was done at 800°C) in a muffle furnace and the cracks of the samples recorded. Results: The clay particles with sizes 20 and 25 μm were higher in LOI and total C than that those of 63 μm regardless of grain size, the clay investigated had quartz (SiO2), illite-montmorillonite, Anatase ((TiO2) and kaolinite. Grading affected the concentrations of Fe, Al and Si as clays with particle sizes 20 and 25 μm had higher contents of the aforementioned elements compared with those of 63 μm. The clay with particles 63 μm had the best strength and this was so because the clay particles had the lowest amount of Fe, Al and Si. Conclusion: The strength of Malaysian pots could be improved upon proper grading of the clay particles.
 
 
 
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