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Articles by Mihai RUSU
Total Records ( 6 ) for Mihai RUSU
  Constantin TOADER , Mihai RUSU , Marilena MARGHITAS and Mihaela MIHAI
  Present worldwide debate, including certain national approaches, lead to highly diversified tendencies for the implementation of agricultural systems involving a higher or lesser role played by fertilizer employment in their success, but they are all called to make a contribution to the achievement of qualitative and quantitative food quantities, while increasing soil fertility and environmental protection. In terms of scientific fundamentals with regard to complex food chain effects, all agricultural systems are perfectible and thus make it impossible for an ultimate and complete achievement of objectives set by human society, cosumers and soil fertility increase requirements. Potato crop fertilizer application does not always bear the mark of the agricultural systems in terms of varieties, content and doses applied, as the purpose and importance of this crop frequently determines attention granted to the achievement of high production results that are much better than in other plants. In this context, the objectives of our research, as well as the research-experiment of the effect of foliar fertilizer assortments ultimately provide applicable variants for agricultural practice that are applied on the inside and the outside of the practised agricultural system. The present paper aims at preseting the results obtained by applying a wide range of foliar fertilizers on the Redsec variety, during the 2005, 2006 and 2007, when the productive effect of these fertilizers was highlighted and differentiated according to the fertilizer assortment and conditions of application. Differentiation of effects obtained by foliar fertilizer application and the level of tuber production are dependant on the application of these fertilizers through varieties exhibiting an essential macroelement nutritive balance or i the particular coposition, there is a predominance of nitrogen presence and concentration (such assortments like Lecol, Folifert and Fortifert). These results show that the effect of foliar fertilizers applied is first due to the involvement of these compositions within the nitrogen cycle and its assimilatio that can be capitalized at an optimal level through the simultaneous representation of phosphorus and potassium in their composition.
  Constantin TOADER , Mihai RUSU , Marilena MARGHITAS and Mihaela MIHAI
  This paper underlines the theoretical and practical importance of complex and balanced fertilization applied to growing potatoes, assured through NP mineral substratum, organo-mineral and foliar. The effect of these interventions is significant, and the absolute and relative values of this effect are as by as the nutritive substratum insures the presence of more nutrients at levels of sufficient biodisponibility. First of all one can appreciate the effect of applied fertilization is put into the light by the bigger production in fertilized crop from control unit (unfertilized). In this context one can underline the major effect of foliar fertilization, in the level of potato production, justifiable by the high natural soil fertilization, and also by organic fertilization applied previously. This way is very frequent used foliar systems determined the better usage of soil nutrients and the obvious accentuation of the effect of before year’s fertilization. Next, the applied fertilization effect following the first one is the organo-mineral systems based on organic substratum interaction (from manure or residual compost a from mushroom production units) with complex fertilization of the NP type. In organo-mineral combination applied the usage of manure as organic substratum has proven superior in quantity to residual mushroom compost, however the limited quantities of organic fertilizer of animal source impose the promoting of organic residue in fertilizing (for instance from mushroom production units). The smallest quantities of harvested potatoes, but with significative differences in control methods obtainable in mineral complex fertilization NP type. The results of production obtained through applying various systems of fertilization in potato in the year 2006 are only partially good, and impose multiannualy experimenting and promoting the results in practice. The combination of organo-mineral fertilizers and liquid to solid complex may be viable practical solutions. The experimenting of differential fertilizing systems has the effect of significant production bonus based on essential fertilizer on organic substratum interaction with mineral complex. Foliar fertilization of various types, manifests is positive and mainly effect by using the natural soil fertility and nutrients biodisponibility accumulated in the soil. Organo-mineral fertilization systems uses the put in valor the bonus of the organic substratum (from manure or residual compost from mushroom production units) and that of the NP type, mineral complex.
  Marilena MARGHITAS , Mihai RUSU , Constantin TOADER and Mihaela MIHAI
  In our country, potato is a highly important national crop, as a basic food element (almost the population’s second bread), while for the Apuseni Mountains area, potato holds the highest percentage and at the same time represents an essential food for locals and their animals, as a paramount food support of the population in the area. Its specific renders this crop as a highly demanding species of plant in terms ecologic conditions, humidity and temperature, as well as nutritive elements, as it forms an abundant vegetative mass and a high tuber quantity for the surface unit. It is a highly consuming nitrogen, potassium , magnesium and calcium plant, as well as with respect to macroelements. Once the potato is harvested, the export of mineral elements from the soil is high, thus determining the rapid soil depletion and demanding for a suitable fertilization of potato crop, adequate to the household system specific to the mountain area. Numerous researches conducted in the area under study reveal the fact that, from a pedoclimatic point of view, there are good and very good conditions for potato crop, considering the climatic abnormalities in the last period. But the severity of the climatic impact varies from one region to another and exerts a serious effect on agriculture. In this highly important sector, climate changes would influence crop harvest, animal breeding and location of production. The increased probability and severity of weather events will considerably increase the risk of crop calamities. The climate change will exert an influence on the soil, by decreasing the organic matter content- a major contributor to soil fertility. In this context, considering the basic occupation of locals in the area, especially animal breeding, alarge quantity of organic fertilizers is used and by meas of their rational employment, they represent the main fertilizatio source of crops in the area, recovery and maintenance of soil fertility. Alongside being the basic food product of population in the area, the importance of potato increases once the altitude of the area also increases, being used as fodder for animal husbandry, due to the fact that the assortment of cultivated plants is limited to potato, rye, oat, some fruit trees, certain vegetables, while the rest of the surfaces is covered with natural pastureland and forests. In this respect, potato covers the largest surface, as corn hybrids, even early ones do not manage to reach maturity in this mountain area.
  Marilena MARGHITAS , Mihai RUSU , Constantin TOADER , Mihaela MIHAI and Eva Maria FIT
  The humus content in the soil defines and analytically measures the organic component in the soil, the processed and finished one as a result of microbiologic and biochemical processes towards a gradual transformation of plant residues. The accumulation of humic substances in the soil is a main component of the process for organic matter transformation and soil formation. It is assessed that the soil’s organic matter encloses three groups of organic substances: non-humified and humified substances, as well as intermediate substances that are encountered in different stages of decomposition. The transformation of soil rocks, able to support the vegetation, starts and continues alongside humus synthesis and accumulation. The paper presents the effect of organo-mineral fertilization in potato on humus accumulation and the maintenance and enhancement of soil fertility on a districambisoil that is poorly productive in the Apuseni Mountains area. From an agrochemical point of view, districambisoils are acidic to strongly acidic, while pH values fall between the 4.5-5.5 interval, while the exchangeable aluminum is present in all subtypes and the content of organic matter and humus reserve is generally small (Bunescu V. et al., 2000, Solurile Muntilor Apuseni, Cartimpex, Cluj-Napoca; Rusu Mihai et al., 2005, Tratat de Agrochimie, Ceres, Bucharest). As material and method, the experiment was bifactorial with two factors (the Roclas potato variety and 10 fertilization levels) and placed according to the subdivided parcel method, for several years, within conditions similar to those employed to obtain a potato production in the mountain area, with differentiated organo-mineral fertilization levels. Agrochemical soil analyses were conducted according to the ICPA methodology for agrochemistry laboratories “Analysis methodology for agrochemical soil analysis to establish the necessary of amendments and fertilizers”, ICPA 1981.The evolution of the humus content on a brown acidic soil (districambisoil), specific to the mountain area, on the N-NW slope of the Ariesul Mic basin in the Apuseni Mountains, through differentiated organo-mineral fertilization emphasizes a moderate humus content, from 2.10 to 3.70 in the superior horizon of the soil (Ao ), where the great majority of plant roots are developed. Organic fertilization applied in moderate doses first determines a protective and even an improvement action of the soil reaction, through an important cation intake, as well as the complexation and immobilization action of acidity factors (H+, cum Al3+, ions etc.). In the superficial soil horizon, a positive influence is emphasized on humus accumulation that in time, shows beneficial changes for the limited assortment of agricultural and horticultural plants in the area.
  Marilena MARGHITAS , Mihai RUSU , Constantin TOADER , Mihaela MIHAI and Lavinia MOLDOVAN
  The paper presents the agrochemical evolution of the districambosoil, through differentiated organo-mineral fertilization on potato crop, in the Avram Iancu commune, under the slope of the Găina Mountain, where the Apuseni seem a huge fort and a gate open towards the world and the sky. The districambosoil (the brown acidic soil) is representative for the mountain area, exhibiting an acidic and strong-acidic trait (pHH2O 4.8 -5.6), the presence of exchangeable aluminium in all of its subtypes, a moderate humus content, a low supply in basic nutritive elements for plants. Thus, it requires enhanced attention granted to fertilization, with an emphasis on mineral fertilizers. Through organo-mineral fertilization, the organic matter in the soil formed from natural organic fertilizers exerts a positive influence on the soils physical and agrochemical traits, making a contribution to the decrease of soil acidity and erosion (characteristic to the mountain area), diminishing nutrition imbalances and enhancing the effect of mineral fertilizers applied to plant species, to achieve superior qualitative and quantitative productions. Alongside being the basic food product of population in the area, the importance of potato increases once the altitude of the area also increases, being used as fodder for animal husbandry, due to the fact that the assortment of cultivated plants is limited to potato, rye, oat, some fruit trees, certain vegetables, while the rest of the surfaces is covered with natural pastureland and forests. Nutritionally, the potato is considered to be a highly-demanding plant in terms of nutritive elements. Once harvesting occurs, the export of nutritive elements in the soil is high, which determined the quick depletion of the soil. Thus, it is necessary to apply suitable fertilization to potato crop, which is adequate to the household system specific to the mountain area, where the basic occupation of locals is animal husbandry. This yields an amount of natural fertilizers that can be rationally employed as the main fertilization source of plants cultivated on lo-fertility soils. The numerous research in the area led to the conclusion that there are good and even very good pedoclimatic conditions for the potato crop, but it has been proven that the time variation of agrochemical indices is the result of the dynamics determined by present clmate change, microorganisms, the plants’ productive consumption and soil nutrient chemism, as well as the influence of fertilizer application and systems of agriculture applied. The increasing possibility and severity of climate events will lead to the increase of the risk of calamity for cultivated agricultural and horticultural plants. Climate change will also affect the soil, decreasing the organic matter content — a major contributor to soil fertility. The importance, originality and novelty of these agrochemical experiemnts are due to yet unsolved issued regarding fertilization combinations through the implementing of an ecologicallyprotective soil fertilization system to maintain and enhance the organic matter content according to the climatic specificity of the mountain area and the specific and overall consumption requirements of potato varieties in the area. This soil fertilization system for potato crop in the mountain area accompanied by a rigorous agrochemical control, provide for a diversity of practical solutions in achieving the agrochemical optimum of the soil-plant system and protection of mountain ecosystems.
  Marilena MARGHITAS , Mihai RUSU , Constantin TOADER , Mihaela MIHAI and Lavinia MOLDOVAN
  The cultivated apple represents the fruit-tree species that occupies one of the first places as production in world fruit-tree growing, due to the paramount part that they play for human nutrition, both as fresh fruit and different processed products.
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