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Articles by Michele L. Pergadia
Total Records ( 4 ) for Michele L. Pergadia
  Arpana Agrawal , Michele L. Pergadia , Sumitra Balasubramanian , Scott F. Saccone , Anthony L. Hinrichs , Nancy L. Saccone , Naomi Breslau , Eric O. Johnson , Dorothy Hatsukami , Nicholas G. Martin , Grant W. Montgomery , Alison M. Goate , John P. Rice , Laura J. Bierut and Pamela A.F. Madden

Aims  A previous association analysis identified polymorphisms in gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A, subunit 4 (GABRA4) and GABRA2 to be associated with nicotine dependence, as assessed by a score of 4 or more on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). In the present report, we extend the previous study by expanding our genotyping efforts significantly for these two genes.

Design  In 1049 cases (FTND of 4 or more) and 872 controls (smokers with FTND of 0) from the United States and Australia, we examine the association between 23 GABRA4 and 39 GABRA2 recently genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and nicotine dependence using logistic regression-based association analyses using the genomic analysis package PLINK.

Results  Two and 18 additional SNPs in GABRA4 and GABRA2, respectively, were associated with nicotine dependence. The SNPs identified in GABRA4 (P-value = 0.002) were restricted to introns 1 and 2, exon 1 and the 5` end of the gene, while those in GABRA2 localized to the 3` end of the gene and spanned introns 9–3, and were in moderate to high linkage disequilibrium (as measured by r2) with each other and with previously studied polymorphisms.

Conclusion  Our findings demonstrate consistently the role of GABRA4 and GABRA2 in nicotine dependence. However, further research is needed to identify the biological influence of these intronic variations and to isolate functionally relevant polymorphisms neighboring them.

  Arpana Agrawal , Carolyn Sartor , Michele L. Pergadia , Anja C. Huizink and Michael T. Lynskey
  Persistent cigarette smoking is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Correlates of difficulty quitting smoking include psychopathology, such as major depressive disorder, and problems with other substances, such as alcoholism. In addition, socio-demographic risk (e.g. poverty) and protective (e.g. living in a region with stringent tobacco laws) influences can modify risk for persistent cigarette smoking. Using data on 17,919 individuals with a lifetime history of smoking 100 or more cigarettes, from a nationally representative U.S. sample, we examine the constellation of risk and protective factors that correlate with smoking cessation (defined as remaining smoke-free in the past 12 months) across four cohorts: young (18–31 years), intermediate-aged (32–43 years), middle-aged (44–60 years) and older (61–99 years) adults. Using survival analyses, we demonstrate that in addition to a history of DSM-IV nicotine dependence, which is negatively associated with smoking cessation, living below the poverty line is also associated with persistent smoking across all age cohorts. Residents over the age of 31 years living on the U.S. West Coast are less likely to be persistent smokers as well. Major depressive disorder is associated with persistent smoking, but interestingly, only in middle-aged and older adults. Alcoholism and a family history of substance use problems are both correlated with persistent smoking but only in older adults. Here, we find evidence for psychopathology that may hinder successful quit attempts during the developmental period when a majority of quit attempts are made (early to mid-40’s). However, our analyses also highlight the important benefits of effective tobacco legislation on the U.S. West Coast and urge policy makers to actively consider addressing issues surrounding tobacco taxation and the impact of poverty on tobacco use, in addition to the risks posed by co-occurring psychiatric problems and other substance use disorders.
  Carolyn E. Sartor , Christina N. Lessov-Schlaggar , Jeffrey F. Scherrer , Kathleen K. Bucholz , Pamela A.F. Madden , Michele L. Pergadia , Julia D. Grant , Theodore Jacob and Hong Xian
  The aim of this study was to examine the association between initial subjective effects from cigarettes and the rate of progression from first cigarette to regular smoking. Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to subjective effects data from 573 offspring of twins ranging in age from 14 to 32 years. LCA revealed four classes: 1) High on both pleasurable and physiological responses, 2) Cough only response, 3) High on physiological, low on pleasurable responses, and 4) High on pleasurable, low on physiological responses. Classes of responses were then used to predict time from first cigarette to the onset of regular smoking in a Cox proportional hazards model. Time-varying covariates representing relevant psychiatric and psychosocial factors as well as dummy variables representing the offspring-of-twins design were included in the model. Members of classes 1 and 4 transitioned more rapidly to regular smoking than the classes characterized as low on the pleasurable response dimension. Our findings provide evidence that previously reported associations between pleasurable initial experiences and progression to regular smoking hold true as well for the rate at which that transition occurs. Furthermore, the fact that profiles of responses did not fall into global categories of exclusively pleasurable vs. exclusively negative (physiological) responses suggests the importance of considering both dimensions in combination to characterize risk for smoking-related outcomes.
  Alexis E. Duncan , Christina N. Lessov-Schlaggar , Elliot C. Nelson , Michele L. Pergadia , Pamela A.F. Madden and Andrew C. Heath
  Little is known about the relationship between relative body weight and transition from experimentation to regular smoking in young adult women. In the current study, data from 2494 participants in wave 4 of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (aged 18–29 years) who reported ever smoking a cigarette were analyzed using logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) at time of interview was categorized according to CDC adult guidelines, and regular smoking was defined as having ever smoked 100 or more cigarettes and having smoked at least once a week for two months in a row. Since the OR's for the overweight and obese groups did not differ significantly from one another in any model tested, these groups were combined. Forty-five percent of women who had ever smoked had become regular smokers. Testing of interactions between potential covariates and levels of the categorical BMI variable revealed a significant interaction between overweight/obesity and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; p < 0.001) associated with regular smoking. Among women reporting CSA, the association between overweight/obesity and having become a regular smoker was negative (n = 374; OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28–0.81). Both underweight and overweight/obesity were positively associated with transition to regular smoking among women who did not report CSA (n = 2076; OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05–2.35 and OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.35–2.20, respectively). These results suggest that experiencing CSA alters the association between BMI and regular smoking in women who have experimented with cigarettes.
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