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Articles by Michel R. Popoff
Total Records ( 2 ) for Michel R. Popoff
  Marie Galloux , Heidi Vitrac , Caroline Montagner , Stephanie Raffestin , Michel R. Popoff , Alexandre Chenal , Vincent Forge and Daniel Gillet
  The translocation of the catalytic domain through the membrane of the endosome to the cell cytoplasm is a key step of intoxication by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). This step is mediated by the translocation (T) domain upon endosome acidification, although the mechanism of interaction of the T domain with the membrane is still poorly understood. Using physicochemical approaches and spectroscopic methods, we studied the interaction of the BoNT/A T domain with the membrane as a function of pH. We found that the interaction with membranes does not involve major secondary or tertiary structural changes, as reported for other toxins like diphtheria toxin. The T domain becomes insoluble around its pI value and then penetrates into the membrane. At that stage, the T domain becomes able to permeabilize lipid vesicles. This occurs for pH values lower than 5.5, in agreement with the pH encountered by the toxin within endosomes. Electrostatic interactions are also important for the process. The role of the so-called belt region was investigated with four variant proteins presenting different lengths of the N-extremity of the T domain. We observed that this part of the T domain, which contains numerous negatively charged residues, limits the protein-membrane interaction. Indeed, interaction with the membrane of the protein deleted of this extremity takes place for higher pH values than for the entire T domain. Overall, the data suggest that acidification eliminates repulsive electrostatic interactions between the T domain and the membrane, allowing its penetration into the membrane without triggering detectable structural changes.
  Mickael Derangeon , Nicolas Bourmeyster , Isabelle Plaisance , Caroline Pinet-Charvet , Qian Chen , Fabien Duthe , Michel R. Popoff , Denis Sarrouilhe and Jean-Claude Herve
  Gap junctions are clusters of transmembrane channels allowing a passive diffusion of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells. Connexin43, the main channel-forming protein expressed in ventricular myocytes, can associate with zonula occludens-1, a scaffolding protein linked to the actin cytoskeleton and to signal transduction molecules. The possible influence of Rho GTPases, major regulators of cellular junctions and of the actin cytoskeleton, in the modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) was examined. The activation of RhoA by cytoxic necrotizing factor 1 markedly enhanced GJIC, whereas its specific inhibition by the Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme significantly reduced it. RhoA activity affects GJIC without major cellular redistribution of junctional plaques or changes in the Cx43 phosphorylation pattern. As these GTPases frequently act via the cortical cytoskeleton, the importance of F-actin in the modulation of GJIC was investigated by means of agents interfering with actin polymerization. Cytoskeleton stabilization by phalloidin slowed down the kinetics of channel rundown in the absence of ATP, whereas its disruption by cytochalasin D rapidly and markedly reduced GJIC despite ATP presence. Cytoskeleton stabilization by phalloidin markedly reduced the consequences of RhoA activation or inactivation. This mechanism appears to be the first described capable to both up- or down-regulate GJIC through RhoA activation or, conversely, inhibition. The inhibition of Rho downstream kinase effectors had no effect on GJIC. The present results provide further insight into the gating and regulation of junctional channels and identify a new downstream target for the small G-protein RhoA.
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