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Articles by Michael Livingston
Total Records ( 2 ) for Michael Livingston
  Michael Livingston
 

Aims A large number of studies have found links between alcohol outlet densities and assault rates in local areas. This study tests a variety of specifications of this link, focusing in particular on the possibility of a non-linear relationship.

Design Cross-sectional data on police-recorded assaults during high alcohol hours, liquor outlets and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained for 223 postcodes in Melbourne, Australia. These data were used to construct a series of models testing the nature of the relationship between alcohol outlet density and assault, while controlling for socio-demographic factors and spatial auto-correlation. Four types of relationship were examined: a normal linear relationship between outlet density and assault, a non-linear relationship with potential threshold or saturation densities, a relationship mediated by the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood and a relationship which takes into account the effect of outlets in surrounding neighbourhoods.

Findings The model positing non-linear relationships between outlet density and assaults was found to fit the data most effectively. An increasing accelerating effect for the density of hotel (pub) licences was found, suggesting a plausible upper limit for these licences in Melbourne postcodes.

Conclusions The study finds positive relationships between outlet density and assault rates and provides evidence that this relationship is non-linear and thus has critical values at which licensing policy-makers can impose density limits.

  Gerald F. Watts , Samuel Gidding , Anthony S. Wierzbicki , Peter P. Toth , Rodrigo Alonso , W. Virgil Brown , Eric Bruckert , Joep Defesche , Khoo Kah Lin , Michael Livingston , Pedro Mata , Klaus G. Parhofer , Frederick J. Raal , Raul D. Santos , Eric J.G. Sijbrands , William G. Simpson , David R. Sullivan , Andrey V. Susekov , Brian Tomlinson , Albert Wiegman , Shizuya Yamashita and John J.P. Kastelein
  Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder present from birth that markedly elevates plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and causes premature coronary heart disease. There are at least 20 million people with FH worldwide, but the majority remains undetected, and current treatment is often suboptimal. To address this major gap in coronary prevention we present, from an international perspective, consensus-based guidance on the care of FH. The guidance was generated from seminars and workshops held at an international symposium. The recommendations focus on the detection, diagnosis, assessment, and management of FH in adults and children and set guidelines for clinical purposes. They also refer to best practice for cascade screening and risk notifying and testing families for FH, including use of genetic testing. Guidance on treatment is based on risk stratification, management of noncholesterol risk factors, and the safe and effective use of low-density lipoprotein-lowering therapies. Recommendations are given on lipoprotein apheresis. The use of emerging therapies for FH is also foreshadowed. This international guidance acknowledges evidence gaps but aims to make the best use of contemporary practice and technology to achieve the best outcomes for the care of FH. It should accordingly be used to inform clinical judgment and be adjusted for country-specific and local healthcare needs and resources.
 
 
 
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