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Articles by Michael G. Katze
Total Records ( 3 ) for Michael G. Katze
  Brenda L. Fredericksen , Brian C. Keller , Jamie Fornek , Michael G. Katze and Michael Gale Jr.
  RIG-I and MDA5, two related pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), are known to be required for sensing various RNA viruses. Here we investigated the roles that RIG-I and MDA5 play in eliciting the antiviral response to West Nile virus (WNV). Functional genomics analysis of WNV-infected fibroblasts from wild-type mice and RIG-I null mice revealed that the normal antiviral response to this virus occurs in two distinct waves. The initial response to WNV resulted in the expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 target genes and IFN-stimulated genes, including several subtypes of alpha IFN. Subsequently, a second phase of IFN-dependent antiviral gene expression occurred very late in infection. In cells lacking RIG-I, both the initial and the secondary responses to WNV were delayed, indicating that RIG-I plays a critical role in initiating innate immunity against WNV. However, another PRR(s) was able to trigger a response to WNV in the absence of RIG-I. Disruption of both MDA5 and RIG-I pathways abrogated activation of the antiviral response to WNV, suggesting that MDA5 is involved in the host's defense against WNV infection. In addition, ablation of the function of IPS-1, an essential RIG-I and MDA5 adaptor molecule, completely disabled the innate antiviral response to WNV. Our data indicate that RIG-I and MDA5 are responsible for triggering downstream gene expression in response to WNV infection by signaling through IPS-1. We propose a model in which RIG-I and MDA5 operate cooperatively to establish an antiviral state and mediate an IFN amplification loop that supports immune effector gene expression during WNV infection.
  Yueh-Ming Loo , Jamie Fornek , Nanette Crochet , Gagan Bajwa , Olivia Perwitasari , Luis Martinez-Sobrido , Shizuo Akira , Michelle A. Gill , Adolfo Garcia-Sastre , Michael G. Katze and Michael Gale
  Alpha/beta interferon immune defenses are essential for resistance to viruses and can be triggered through the actions of the cytoplasmic helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). Signaling by each is initiated by the recognition of viral products such as RNA and occurs through downstream interaction with the IPS-1 adaptor protein. We directly compared the innate immune signaling requirements of representative viruses of the Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Reoviridae for RIG-I, MDA5, and interferon promoter-stimulating factor 1 (IPS-1). In cultured fibroblasts, IPS-1 was essential for innate immune signaling of downstream interferon regulatory factor 3 activation and interferon-stimulated gene expression, but the requirements for RIG-I and MDA5 were variable. Each was individually dispensable for signaling triggered by reovirus and dengue virus, whereas RIG-I was essential for signaling by influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and human respiratory syncytial virus. Functional genomics analyses identified cellular genes triggered during influenza A virus infection whose expression was strictly dependent on RIG-I and which are involved in processes of innate or adaptive immunity, apoptosis, cytokine signaling, and inflammation associated with the host response to contemporary and pandemic strains of influenza virus. These results define IPS-1-dependent signaling as an essential feature of host immunity to RNA virus infection. Our observations further demonstrate differential and redundant roles for RIG-I and MDA5 in pathogen recognition and innate immune signaling that may reflect unique and shared biologic properties of RNA viruses whose differential triggering and control of gene expression may impact pathogenesis and infection.
  Tracey Baas , Anjeanette Roberts , Thomas H. Teal , Leatrice Vogel , Jun Chen , Terrence M. Tumpey , Michael G. Katze and Kanta Subbarao
 
 
 
 
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