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Articles by Mhd Ikhwanuddin
Total Records ( 12 ) for Mhd Ikhwanuddin
  Mhd Ikhwanuddin , Nur Salwani Ahmad-Fadzil , Syahnon Mohamad and Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi
  Background and Objective: Blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus is a commercially important species of the southeast Asian region especially Malaysia. However, an establish methods for extensive larval rearing is in developmental stage. Thus, optimization of hatchery culture for this species including photo period and light intensity is therefore vital. This study presented the effect of different photo period and light intensity levels on survival and growth rates of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus larvae. Materials and Methods: Three different photo period regime (24 h light: 0 h dark, 12 h light: 12h dark and 0 h light: 24 h dark) and three different light intensity (1302, 326 and 1.2 lux) were adopted during this experiment. Results: Light intensity of 1302 lux and full lightness 24 h lights achieved the highest specific growth rate. For the early larval stage of Zoea 1 and Zoea 2, high intensity of 1302 lux and 24 h light resulted high survival rate and for the late larval stage of Zoea 3 and Zoea 4. Conclusion: It was concluded that higher light intensity and longer photo period conditions are required during early larval stages meanwhile medium light intensity and ambient photo period of 12 h: 12 d are required during the later stage of culture.
  Mhd Ikhwanuddin , Mohd-Fadhil Adnan , Syahnon Mohamad and Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi
  Background and Objective: The development of domesticated crab is an important aspect for further sustain ability of seed production and broodstock enhancement. An induction of gonad maturation is important to increase the broodstock used for hatchery seed production. This study was designed to determine the effect of eyestalk ablation on the ovarian maturation stages in P. pelagicus in term of the gonadosomatic index (GSI), mean of oocyte diameter and then were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Materials and Methods: Three group of treatments were set up included control (without any eyestalk ablation), unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation. Crabs were then cultured for 30 days in the culture rearing tank systems immediately after ablation and GSI with mean of oocyte diameter were calculated. Results: Mean value of GSI was 2.21, 3.39 and 3.31% in control, unilateral eyestalk ablated and bilateral eyestalk ablated, respectively. In addition, the oocyte development was 175.77, 187.44 and 214.08 μm, respectively. Statistical analysis did not show any difference obtained in GSI of control, unilateral and bilateral ablated (p>0.05) but statistically different (p<0.05) found in oocyte diameter. Conclusion: It was concluded that eyestalk ablation affected the oocyte diameter of ovarian maturation stages of P. pelagicus.
  Mhd Ikhwanuddin and Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi
  The human demand for fish protein is increasing daily with continuous growth of the global population and economy. Due to the low harvests of wild-caught fish in conjunction with high human fish consumption, aquaculture presents the most effective solution for enhancing the production of fish protein. However, most fish and shellfish hatcheries fully depend on wild-caught broodstock for seed production. The most effective way to resolve this issue is by enhancing the development of domesticated broodstock. Domesticated broodstock would ensure a consistent production of seed for further breeding and stock enhancement programs. Herein, the present perspective describes an important aspect of the current development of domesticated broodstock for future stock enhancement of fish and shellfish in hatchery seed production. The following characteristics were chosen for domestication of species: High market value (either as food or as ornamental), commercially important for fisheries/aquaculture, threatened or endangered, easy to culture, desirable production traits, disease resistant, viral pathogen-free, ability to utilize various food types and have environmental tolerance. The selection of broodstock source is vital for domestication program, as this is the first step for culturing the selected fish and shellfish species. Genetically improved broodstock are usually used in domestication programs along with optimum feeding strategies and space for improved hatchery production. There are many advantages of domestication, particularly for sustainable food protein as well as for future stock-enhancement programs for newly cultured aquatic species. In conclusion, the success in domestication primarily depends on the knowledge of basic fish and shellfish biology.
  Nor Azman Kasan , Nurarina Ayuni Ghazali , Nurul Fakriah Che Hashim , Iswadi Jauhari , Ahmad Jusoh and Mhd Ikhwanuddin
  Background and Objectives: One of the major problem in Pacific Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei farming industry is the accumulation of excess toxicant such as ammonia and nitrite. Biofloc technology served as an alternative solution to solve this problem by recycling the water for sustainable aquaculture management due to water scarcity, bio-security and bio-economy. Biological communities within biofloc are mainly composed of micro-organisms which plays an important role in biodegradation of organic material and removal of toxic contaminants. For the purpose of this study, molecular identification of microfungi isolated from biofloc was conducted. Materials and Methods: Isolation of microfungi composition was conducted by culturing the biofloc samples onto Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media which further identified molecularly using 18s rDNA sequences analysis. Results: The identified microfungi includes genus from Aspergillus versicolor, A. niger, A. tamarii, A. flavipes, A. aculeatus, Penicillium citrinum, P. griseofulvum, Trichoderma virens and Pestalotiopsis microspora. The most dominant microfungi were genus Aspergillus sp. followed by the presence of Penicillium sp. Trichoderma sp. and Pestalotiopsis sp. Conclusion: Existence of microfungi species such as Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. in biofloc were perfect candidate in forming biofloc that could reduce water pollution towards a sustainable aquaculture industry.
  Hidayah Manan , Julia Moh Hwei Zhong , Fariduddin Othman and Mhd Ikhwanuddin
  Hepatopancreas study of Pacific White shrimp, Penaeus vannamei was done on the shrimp samples from a commercial shrimp farm in Setiu, Terengganu. About six individual shrimps were collected randomly from eight different shrimp grow-out ponds for histopathology analysis at Universiti Malaysia Terengganu laboratory. Most of the hepatopancreas samples appeared to be healthy, however in the histopathology results showed signs of unhealthy hepatopancreas conditions including slough hepatopancreas tubules cells (SHP), degeneration of Tubules Lumen (TL), enlarged of the hepatopancreas nuclei cell and lack of B, F and R epithelial cells in the hepatopancreas tubules. The study shows that HP conditions can be the indicator to determine the conditions of the shrimp health status.
  Arif Azizi Che Harun , Nor Aini Huda Mohammad , Mhd Ikhwanuddin , Noraznawati Ismail , Zaharah Ibrahim and Nor Azman Kasan
  Background and Objective: Biological flocculant or bioflocculant have been used in aquaculture industry as it can be applied easily and are environmentally friendly. Biofloc technology has been used in aquaculture using bioflocculant concept or mechanisms. This study was aimed to test and applied bioflocculant-producing bacteria isolated from biofloc for flocculation process potentially used as inoculum for rapid formation of biofloc. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, isolated bacteria from the biofloc sample were identified as bioflocculant-producing bacteria using yeast peptone glucose agar as it shows highly mucoid and ropy colonies morphology. From six species of bioflocculant-producing bacteria [(Bacillus infantis (B. infantis), Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Bacillus safensis (B. safensis), Halomonas venusta (H. venusta), Nitratireductor aquimarinus (N. aquimarinus) and Pseudoalteromonas], there was 64 consortium of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were produced using the sum of combination calculation. These 64 consortium were tested for flocculation activity using kaolin clay suspension method. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc and Tukey test was used to compare the differences of flocculation activity of each bacterial consortium. Results: Out of the 64 consortium, there were 19 consortium showed more than 80% of flocculation activity. The most consortium that has more than 80% flocculation activity derived from consortiums of single and combination of two bioflocculant-producing bacteria species. Consortium of B. infantis and B. cereus found to have the highest flocculation activity followed by single species of B. infantis and N. aquimarinus which were 94.3, 92.9 and 90.6%, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, each consortium of bioflocculant-producing bacteria produced different types of extracellular polymeric substances thus affecting ability in flocculation activity test. Information on extracellular polymeric substances produced by different consortium of bioflocculant-producing bacteria will potentially to be used as inoculum for rapid formation of biofloc.
  Nor Azman Kasan , Nurarina Ayuni Ghazali , Mhd Ikhwanuddin and Zaharah Ibrahim
  Background and Objective: A new green technology to reduce environmental damages while optimizing production of Pacific Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei was developed known as "Biofloc technology". Microbial communities in biofloc aggregates are responsible in eliminating water exchange and producing microbial proteins that can be used as supplemented feed for L. vannamei. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential bioflocculant-producing bacteria to be used as inoculum for rapid formation of biofloc. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, bacterial communities during 0, 30 and 70 days of culture (DOC) of L. vannamei grow-out ponds were isolated and identified through phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic relationships between isolated bacteria were then evaluated through phylogenetic tree analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences of microbial communities at each DOC. Results: Out of 125 bacterial isolates, nine species of bacteria from biofloc were identified successfully. Those bacteria species were identified as Halomonas venusta, H. aquamarina, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus infantis, B. cereus, B. safensis, Providencia vermicola, Nitratireductor aquimarinus and Pseudoalteromonas sp., respectively. Through phylogenetic analysis, these isolates belong to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes families under the genera of Halomonas sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus sp., Providencia sp., Nitratireductor sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp. Conclusion: In this study, bioflocculant-producing bacteria were successfully identified which are perfect candidates in forming biofloc to reduce water pollution towards a sustainable aquaculture industry. Presence of Halomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. in all stages of biofloc formation reinforces the need for new development regarding the ability of these species to be used as inoculum in forming biofloc rapidly.
  Siti Nor Fatihah , Harman Muhd-Farouk , Adnan Amin-Safwan , Hairul Hafiz Mahsol and Mhd Ikhwanuddin
  Background and Objective: Mud spiny lobsters, Panulirus polyphagus (P. polyphagus) are one of the most important fisheries resources now-a-days due to quality that it’s possessed. However, there is still lack of in-depth study about this species mainly on males testicular characteristics and sexual maturity size. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the histological characteristics on the testes and sexual maturity sizes of mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus. Materials and Methods: The testes were dissected out and fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for 11 h, dehydrated in 70% alcohol and lastly placed in tissue processor for 18±1 h at 60°C. The tissues blocks were cut at the thickness of 4 μm on a rotary microtome. Stained tissues were taken under Advance Microscope (Nikon Eclipse 80i Nomarski DIC). Collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013. Data were presented as mean±standard deviation. Statistical analyses were done using one-way ANOVA using SPSS (Version 22). Results: These lobules of mature P. polyphagus were formed via different germinative lineage cells such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The histological characteristics of testes showed that the process of spermatogenesis went through the stages of four testes maturation which were spermatogonia I and II, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids and spermatozoa stages within different body weight of P. polyphagus. It was found that there were significant difference between body weight and carapace length to the testicular maturation stages (one-way ANOVA and p = 0.000). Conclusion: The results of this experiment indicated that males P. polyphagus have four stages of testes maturation and can be considered to have fully mature testes that ready for fertilization at 452 g body weight (BW) and 107 mm carapace length (CL) or more.
  Mat Ghani Hilmi and Mhd Ikhwanuddin
  Background and Objective: Fundamental information on how environmental conditions affect lipofuscin (LF) levels could be useful to those furthering the development of an effective management plan to control certain populations in certain geographical areas. Thus, the effects of salinity upon LF levels were examined using 7 salinities in the range 10-40% (increasing in steps of 5%). Materials and Methods: The impacts of freezing preservation were also examined for 60 crab samples with carapace widths of 7-8 cm randomly allocated for either immediate or post-freezing (-80°C) analysis. Results: The result showed that 25% salinity was optimum for LF accumulation in both males and females crabs. The mean value of LF production was higher for males compared to females. Higher and lower salinity of 10 and 40% were the most stressed conditions for LF accumulation. The LF index (LI) of P. pelagicus decreased in salinities below and above the typical range. Conclusion: For both sexes, the frozen samples exhibited notably higher LI values than the fresh samples (p<0.05). These results will be applicable in numerous respects, for example in the selection of farm locations and for optimising productivity by controlling salinity levels.
  Mat Ghani Hilmi and Mhd Ikhwanuddin
  Background and Objective: The accumulation of lipofuscin (LF) is an alternative technique to identify age of crustacean species. However, the exact sites and the level of the LF concentration were unknown especially for different sexes of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus. Thus, the present study was aimed to identify which part of the eyestalk of P. pelagicus contains more LF levels in order to establish a specific target part of samples. Materials and Methods: Thus, crab samples for this study were sampled from the wild habitat at Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100 samples of with the same size (80±5 mm carapace width) were sampled and the eyestalk dissected for LF extraction. The determination of LF sites and levels in the eyestalks organ was taken from the area between the distal tangential layer (DTL) and proximal tangential layer (PTL). The lower part of the eyestalk was taken from the PTL until the end of the eyestalk. Results: The upper part of the crab’s eyestalk was higher in the males crabs compared to the females crabs. LF index also shown that the upper part of crab’s eyestalk have higher concentration compared to the lower part. Conclusion: The left crab’s eyestalk had the higher LF index especially in males compared to females but the total concentration was higher in female crabs. Knowing which part has highly dense accumulation of LF helps in LF detection of the tissue and further helps for age determination for this species.
  Mhd Ikhwanuddin
  This mini-review focus primarily on the current knowledge and techniques of portunid breeding and larva rearing. Topics include; (i) natural breeding in captivity and artificial breeding for breeding techniques and (ii) environmental conditions, diet requirements and developing factors for larval rearing. Specific knowledge of portunid crab breeding and larval rearing essential for optimizing breeding and culture conditions are shared. On the whole, this work allows for a better understanding of the portunid crab breeding and larval rearing and helps pave the way for future sustainable aquaculture of portunid crabs, among commercially important crustacean family in the world.
  Hidayah Manan , Adnan Amin-Safwan , Nor Azman Kasan and Mhd Ikhwanuddin
  Background and Objective: Biofloc application has been introduced in aquaculture in order to reduce the nutrients level and sustain good water quality. Due to its importance, a study was conducted to identify the effect of biofloc application on shrimp growth performance, specific growth rate and survival rate in a closed hatchery system. Materials and Methods: Molasses as carbon sources were applied in ratio 10:1 for biofloc formulation and no addition of molasses in non-biofloc (clear water) treatment. One way ANOVA was applied to analyze the differences between biofloc treatments and clear water. Results: The survival rate of the shrimp was ranged between 23.69 and 98.77% for biofloc treatment, whereas 98.15-99.23% for non-biofloc treatment. The lowest survival rate (23.69%) was due to vibriosis infection in one of the biofloc treatment tanks. Growth performance was identified expedite in biofloc especially in (dark green) colour biofloc as compared to non-biofloc. The Specific Growth Rate (SGR) for Body Weight (BW) was identified expedite around (3.25-4.06) g day1 for biofloc treatment compared to non-biofloc around (2.74-3.93) g day1. The SGR for (TL) also identified expedite around (2.12-2.45) cm day1 for biofloc, compared to non-biofloc (clear water) around (1.71-2.13) cm day1. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the biofloc application successfully improved the shrimp performance and at the same time become the additional natural diet to the shrimp respectively. However, further study needs to be conducted to improve the survival rate and prevent vibriosis infection by using the biofloc system in the future.
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