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Articles by Metha Wanapat
Total Records ( 23 ) for Metha Wanapat
  Trinh Thi Hong Nguyen , Metha Wanapat and Thao The Nguyen
  The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mangosteen peel, garlic and urea pellet supplementation on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis of beef cattle. Four crossbred (Brahman x Holstein) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments of different mangosteen peel pellets in concentrate. The treatments were as follows: T1, none supplementation; T2, supplementation with mangosteen peel pellet at 200 g/head/day (Mago-pel); T3, supplementation with mangosteen peel and garlic pellet at 200 g/head/day (Mago-pic) and T4, supplementation with mangosteen peel, garlic and urea pellet at 200 g/head/day (Mago-ulic). Rice straw was offered at ad libitum and concentrate was fed at 0.5% of BW. The results were found that total DMI and digestibility of DM and CP were not significantly affected by pellet supplementation whereas digestibility of NDF and ADF were higher in the pellet supplementation than in the control (p<0.05), ruminal temperature, pH, NH3-N, total VFA and butyrate were similar among treatments although NH3-N tended to be higher in supplemental treatments and the highest was in Mago-ulic supplemental treatment. There was significantly different in propionate production (p<0.05) between treatments in which the highest was in Mago-ulic supplementation. In addition, the acetate, acetate to propionate ratio and methane production were reduced, bacterial population was increased and the highest was in Mago-ulic treatment. In contrast, protozoal population was reduced while fungal zoospores were not affected by feed supplementation. Microbial protein synthesis was increased by pellet supplementation although there was not significantly different between Mago-pel and control. In this study, supplementation of Mago-ulic at 200 g/head/day has shown the greatest for improving rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and lower protozoa population in beef cattle.
  Sineenart Polyorach , Metha Wanapat , Onanong Poungchompu , Anusorn Cherdthong , Pongsatorn Gunun , Nirawan Gunun and Sungchhang Kang
  Background and Objective: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is widely grown in sub-tropical and tropical areas, producing roots as an energy source containing high soluble carbohydrate but low in crude protein. The process of protein enrichment of animal feed using microorganisms in a semi-solid culture to improve the nutritional value of ruminants feed has been considered. This study aimed to investigate the effect of microorganism fermentation on nutritional values of cassava products and in vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility. Materials and Methods: The experimental design was a 2×4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. Factor A was two types of cassava root (fresh cassava root (FC) and cassava chip (CC)) and factor B was four sources of microorganism inclusion [no microorganism (No), Yeast (Y), effective microorganism (EM) and Yeast+EM (EMY)), respectively. Results: The results found that crude protein of cassava root was dramatically increased by Y and EM fermentation and the highest was found in CC (p<0.05). The gas kinetics, cumulative gas production (96 h) and in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility were enhanced by Y and EM fermentation (p<0.05), especially in CC group. Moreover, Y and EM could increase concentration of volatile fatty acids and ammonia-nitrogen while reduced methane production (p<0.05). Ruminal bacteria and fungi were increased whereas protozoa population was reduced by Y and EM fermentation. Conclusion: In conclusion, Y and EM fermentation could improve nutritional values of cassava products and enhance nutritional digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency while decrease protozoa and methane production. However, further researches in feeding trial could be conducted.
  Vongpasith Chanthakhoun and Metha Wanapat
  A quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to determine the population densities of major ruminal cellulolytic bacterial species (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens) in rumen fluid and digesta of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of Phaseolus calcaratus Hay (PCH) supplementation. PCH contained 18.3% Crude Protein (CP) and 2.8% condensed tannins. Animals were given 0, 300, 600 and 900 g day-1 as supplements. All animals were given ad libitum access to rice straw while additional concentrate (12.6% CP) was given at 0.3% body mass and each period lasted for 21 days. At the end of each period, rumen fluid and digesta was collected at 0, 4 h post morning feeding. It was found that PCH supplementation increased these three cellulolytic bacteria F. succinogenes between 2.5 and 5.5x109, R. flavefaciens between 3.6 and 9.1x109, R. albus between 5.7 and 17.9x108 copies mL-1 at 0, 300, 600 and 900 g day-1 of supplementation, respectively. Moreover, at 4 h post-morning feeding, the populations of the two cellulolytic bacteria were higher than those found at 0 h post-morning feeding. It is most notable that R. flavefaciens and R. albus were the highest in population in the rumen of swamp buffalo, hence indicating high ability in utilizing high fibrous feeds.
  Anusorn Cherdthong , Metha Wanapat , Phongthorn Kongmun , Ruangyote Pilajun and Pichad Khejornsart
  Four rumen-fistulated, male swamp buffalo were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of the urea-treated rice straw to concentrate ratio (R:C) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibilities, microbial protein synthesis and cellulolytic bacterial population. Animals were fed R:C of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, respectively. Results showed that digestibility of nutrients were significantly affected by R:C especially those of OM and fiber. However, digestibility of CP, ruminal NH3-N and plasma urea N were similar among treatments (p>0.05) whereas ruminal pH was decreased significantly (p<0.01) when concentrate ratio was increased. Total VFA concentrations and C3 were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 50:50 of R:C supplementation (p<0.01). Total viable bacteria, proteolytic bacteria and bacteria cell count were not altered among treatments (p>0.05) whereas amylolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and fungal zoospore were significantly different (p<0.01), responding to a change in proportion of R:C. Moreover, using of real-time PCR technique provided that feeding of a 100% roughage remarkably increased these three cellulolytic bacteria numbers up to 3.54x109 copies mL-1 for F. succinogenes, 7.38x107 copies mL-1 for R. Flavefaciens and 5.80x106 copies mL-1 for R. albus in rumen digesta, respectively. It is most notable that F. succinogenes were the highest in population in the rumen of swamp buffalo. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis were enriched by R:C supplementation, especially at the ratio of 50:50 (p<0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of R:C at 50:50 improved digestibilities of nutrients, ruminal ecology and microbial protein synthesis efficiency.
  Kissada Boonnop , Metha Wanapat and Chainarong Navanukraw
  Four, rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian dairy crossbred steers were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to evaluate replacement of Soybean Meal (SBM) by yeast-fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) in concentrate diets on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen balance and nutrient digestibilities of dairy crossbred steers. Animals were replacement levels of SBM by YEFECAP at 0, 33, 67 and 100%, respectively. The results revealed that daily DM intake, rumen ammonia-nitrogen (9.6, 11.9, 13.8 and 15.1 mg% for treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) total volatile fatty acids especially molar of propionate (22.0, 23.1, 26.4 and 27.5% for treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively), fungal zoospores (3.1, 4.4, 7.4 and 6.8x105 cell mL-1 for treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and bacterial population especially cellulolytic bacteria (1.8, 3.0, 4.2 and 5.2x109 cell mL-1 for treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and nutrient digestibities were linearly increased (p<0.01) with increasing percentages of YEFECAP. The apparent efficiency of net microbial protein synthesis in the rumen increased (p<0.01) with concentrate containing proportional increase of YEFECAP. The highest for all parameters were found in treatments 3 and 4 (67 and 100% replacement, respectively). Population of rumen protozoa was significantly decreased with increasing percentage replacement of YEFECAP. Based on this result, the conclusion can be made that using YEFECAP as the main source of protein to completely replace soybean meal was beneficial to cattle in terms of efficiency of rumen fermentation, nutrients digestibities and microbial protein synthesis. However, further study to investigate the use of YEFECAP in productive ruminants especially in lactating cows or feedlot beef cattle should be further investigated.
  Ruangyote Pilajun , Metha Wanapat , Chalong Wachirapakorn and Chainarong Navanukroaw
  Four, rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4x4 Latin square design to study effects of coconut oil and sunflower oil ratio on rumen fermentation, rumen microorganisms and methane concentration in the rumen. The dietary treatments were ratios of coconut oil and sunflower oil at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 for treatment 1-4, respectively. Steers were fed concentrate at 0.5% of BW (DM) and urea-treated rice straw was given ad libitum. The results were found that coconut oil and sunflower oil ratio did not affect feed intake and rumen microbial population except for total viable bacteria in which 75:25 ratio was the highest. Dietary treatments had affected nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation especially 50:50 ratio. Methane concentration was linearly decreased when sunflower oil proportion increased. Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were similar among treatments, although microbial nitrogen supply tended to have a quadratic response to oil ratios. It is concluded that combined supplementation of coconut oil and sunflower oil could be beneficial to improve the rumen ecosystem and potential productivity in ruminants.
  Pichad Khejornsart and Metha Wanapat
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of rumen anaerobic fungi and methanogenic archaea on ruminal fermentation in swamp buffalo. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes with average 369 kg of body weight were used. All animals were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments; factor A = two sources of roughage (rice straw and 2% urea+2% lime treated rice straw), factor B = two levels of urea in concentrate mixture (0 and 4%). Roughages were given ad libitum together with 3 g kg-1 BW of concentrate. It was found that voluntary feed intake, the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, acetate and propionate concentration were significantly increased (p<0.05) by treated rice straw while NH3-N, BUN and propionic acid concentration were increased by both factors of treated rice straw and 4% urea in concentrate. The real-time PCR quantification of F. succinogenes and R. albus population and anaerobic fungi were greater (p<0.05) but the population of R. flavefaciens, protozoa and methanogenic bacteria were reduced (p>0.05) as influenced by treated rice straw and urea level. Animal consumed treated rice straw was shown in more diverts in phylogenetic relationship. No change in rumen methanogenic bacteria diversity and relative change with fungi population. In conclusion, the combined use of urea-lime treated rice straw and fed with concentrate (4% urea) could improve rumen ecology, rumen fermentation efficiency and increase anaerobic fungi. The results from this study suggest that feeding with urea-lime treated rice straw more rumen fermentation efficiency though shift fungi and methanogenic population.
  Pichad Khejornsart and Metha Wanapat
  In vitro gas production was measured to investigate associative effects of untreated and chemically treated Rice Straw (RS). The RS was treated with NaOH, urea or lime and evaluated the nutritive value of treated rice straw using in vitro gas production. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and the analyzed to describe the kinetics of gas production. Total nucleic acid was extracted from ruminal content in vial of each treatment and contribution of fungal population was estimated by using PCR-DGGE technique. It was found that the treatment with NaOH, urea and lime increased (p<0.05) gas production at 24 h, potential GP and rate constant of GP were highest for NaOH, follow by 2% urea+2% lime, 3% urea, 3% lime, 3.5% urea+3.5% lime and lowest for 5% urea treated rice straw (p<0.05). Ammonia nitrogen was increased belong to the increase of urea level treating rice straw. It was higher in 5% urea treatment and 3% urea-lime treatment and 2% urea-lime treatment. Total VFA and acetate and propionate concentrations were higher for 3% urea and 2% urea-lime as compared with other treatments (p<0.05). All treated rice straw shown similar in diversity of fungi except 2% sodium treated rice straw. Other treated rice straw was found similar in the diversity of fungi with 6 bands per each lane. The results from this study suggest that 2% urea plus lime treated rice straw can use as good roughage for ruminants to improve rumen fermentation, digestibility and low cost and treatments rice straw were shift the number species of rumen fungi.
  Sungchhang Kang , Metha Wanapat , Parwadee Pakdee and Anusorn Cherdthong
  Four Thai-rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes male (Bubalus bubalis), about 3 years old with 360±18 kg liveweight were assigned according to a 2x2 factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1) level of concentrate at 0.1% BW with Leucaena leucocephala Leaf Meal (LLLM) at 300 g/hd/day; T2) concentrate at 0.2% BW with LLLM at 300 g/hd/day; T3) concentrate at 0.1% BW with heated Leucaena leucocephala Leaf Meal (HLLLM) at 300 g/hd/day and T4) concentrate at 0.2% BW with HLLLM at 300 g/hd/day. The results revealed a significant increase in roughage and total DM intake (p<0.05) by concentrate level at 0.2% BW (T2 and T4) as compared with concentrate level at 0.1% BW (T1 and T3). Digestion coefficient (%) of DM, OM and CP were increased by level of concentrate at 0.2% BW while NDF and ADF were similar among treatments. However, there was no effect of neither energy level nor HLLLM on ruminal pH and temperature (p>0.05). Concentration of ruminal NH3-N was decreased by HLLLM as compared with LLLM (p<0.05) while blood urea-nitrogen was not changed and was in normal range. Total bacterial direct counts were found significantly different (p<0.05) whereas fungi zoospores and protozoal populations were similar among treatments. Nevertheless, viable bacterial counts were found affected by both concentrate level and HLLLM. The treatments with HLLLM were lower than those in LLLM and concentrate level at 0.2% BW were higher than those supplemented at 0.1% (p<0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that HLLLM could be used as a protein source in terms of rumen undegradable protein while the combination of HLLLM and concentrate level at 0.2% of BW could enhance the voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and ecology in swamp buffalo fed supplementation on 2+2% urea-lime treated rice straw.
  Viengsakoun Napasirth , Metha Wanapat and Jan Berg
  An experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of urea (NH2)2CO and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] treatment of straw using a 4x4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. Chopped rice straw was treated with mixtures of urea (0-3 g kg-1 dry matter) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g kg-1 dry matter) by dissolving in 100 mL water g -1 straw and ensiled in a plastic box at room temperature for 14 days. Ensiled rice straws were examined for chemical composition and in in vitro gas production. Rumen fluid was collected from two ruminally fistulated native crossbred beef cattle with an average body weight of 230 kg. During the incubations, gas production was recorded at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60, 72 and 96 h after incubation. All gas production volume collected were linearly increased as fermentation time interval proceeded from 0-96 h after incubation. Gas volume from insoluble fraction were significantly altered (p<0.05) by urea level as fermentation time increased while there were no effects by lime treatment. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration were increased when increasing urea level. The highest NH3-N was found in 3% urea-treatment (p<0.05) while there were no significant differences in calcium hydroxide treatments under in vitro gas production technique.
  Sittisak Khampa , Songsak Chumpawadee and Metha Wanapat
  Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T4 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2 and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and cassava hay supplementation. In conclusion, the combined use of cassava hay and malate at 1,000 g in high-quality feed block with concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip at 65% DM could highest improved rumen ecology and nutrients digestibility in lactating dairy cows.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Ten, one year old male cattles with initial body weight of 150±10 kg were randomly divided into 2 groups and received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) and Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Chip (YMFCC) (T2). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1 %BW and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Means were compared using t-test. All animals were kept in individual pens and received free access to water. The results have revealed that replacement of YMFCC on feed intake was non-significantly different, while Average Daily Gain (ADG) and digestibility of nutrients were higher (p<0.05) in cattle fed YMFCC (T2) treatments than received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) (235 and 203 g/d). In addition, the ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were significantly different (p<0.05). The concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid was slightly higher in cattle receiving T2 than T1 (23.9 and 17.8 mol/100 mol). Supplementation of YMFCC (T2) could improve population of bacteria and fungal zoospore, but decreased populations of Holotrich and Entodiniomorph protozoa in rumen (p<0.05). The results indicate that supplementation of Yeast-Malate Fermented Cassava Chip (YMFCC) as a replacement concentrate at 14% CP could improve rumen fermentation efficiency and digestibility of nutrients in cattle.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhaler and Metha Wanapat
  Ten, one-year old heifers with initial body weight at 150±10 kg were randomly divided into 2 groups according to receive concentrate at 14% CP (1 kg/head/day) + Ivermectin (T1), cassava hay (T2) (1 kg/head/ day) and means were compared using t-test. All animals were grazing on ruzi grass pasture. The results have revealed that supplementation of cassava hay as anthelmintics replace ivermectin was non significant affected to fecal parasitic egg counts and average daily gain in buffaloes grazing on ruzi grass pasture (p>0.05). In addition, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 60.5 and 50.6%, respectively. However, Average Daily Gain (ADG) tended to be higher in swamp buffaloes fed on groups cassava hay (T2) treatments than in those fed concentrate + ivermectin. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly organic matter was significantly higher in T2 than those in T1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source but also high efficiency serve as an anthelmintics in heifer.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhaler and Metha Wanapat
  Six, one-year old male swamp buffaloes with initial body weight at 200±10 kg were randomly divided into two groups according to receive concentrate at 14% CP (1 kg/head/day) + Ivermectin (T1); cassava hay (T2) (1 kg/head/day) and means were compared using t-test. All animals were grazing on ruzi grass pasture. The results have revealed that supplementation of cassava hay as anthelmintics replace ivermectin was non significant affected to fecal parasitic egg counts and average daily gain in buffaloes grazing on ruzi grass pasture (p>0.05). In addition, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 64.8 and 57.4%, respectively. However, Average Daily Gain (ADG) tended to be higher in swamp buffaloes fed on groups cassava hay (T2) treatments than in those fed concentrate + ivermectin. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly organic matter was significantly higher in T2 than those in T1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source but also high efficiency serve as an anthelmintics in swam buffaloes.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Uthai Koatdoke , Rungson Singhaler and Metha Wanapat
  Ten, one-year old male native cattle with initial body weight at 150±10 kg were randomly divided into two groups according to receive concentrate at 14% CP (1 kg/head/day) + Ivermectin (T1); cassava hay (T2) (1 kg/head/day) and means were compared using t-test. All animals were grazing on ruzi grass pasture. The results have revealed that supplementation of cassava hay as anthelmintics replace ivermectin was non significant affected to fecal parasitic egg counts and average daily gain in buffaloes grazing on ruzi grass pasture (p>0.05). In addition, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 69.7 and 48.3%, respectively. However, Average Daily Gain (ADG) tended to be higher in swamp buffaloes fed on groups cassava hay (T2) treatments than in those fed concentrate + ivermectin. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly organic matter was significantly higher in T2 than those in T1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source in native cattle but also high efficiency serve as an anthelmintics.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of concentrate containing different level of protein at 14 and 18% CP and urea-treated corn silage at 2 and 5% respectively. The treatments were as follows by concentrate containing protein at 14% CP + 2% urea-treated corn silage (T1); concentrate containing protein at 14% CP + 5% urea-treated corn silage (T2); concentrate containing protein at 18% CP + 2% urea-treated corn silage (T3) and concentrate containing protein at 18% CP + 5% urea-treated corn silage (T4), respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yields at 1:2 and urea-treated corn silage were fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that total DM intake (%BW) and ruminal pH were not affected (p>0.05). Likewise, the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were significantly different affected by protein levels in concentrate with urea levels treated corn silage. In addition, rumen microorganism populations such as bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores were affected (p<0.05) by different by protein levels in concentrate with urea level treated corn silage. Moreover, the differences of protein levels in concentrate and urea level treated in corn silage were affected to milk yield and composition (p<0.05), especially income over feed highest in dairy cows were received a concentrate containing protein at 18% CP + 5% urea treated corn silage (T4). Therefore, results from this experiment indicated that the differences of protein levels in concentrate and urea level treated corn silage affected on rumen ecology and milk production in lactating dairy cows.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, one-year old of dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 vs 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 1,000 vs 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70%DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with ruzi grass as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in dairy steers.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Ten, one year old of native cattle with initial body weight of 150 ± 10 kg were randomly divided into two groups and received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) and Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) (T2). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. Means were compared using T-test. All animals were kept in individual pens and received free access to water. The results have revealed that replacement of YFCC on feed intake was non-significantly different, while Average Daily Gain (ADG) was higher (p<0.05) in native cattle fed YFCC (T2) treatments than received concentrate at 14% CP (T1) (259 and 205 g/d). In addition, the ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were significantly different (p<0.05). Supplementation of YFCC (T2) could improve population of bacteria and fungal zoospore, but decreased populations of Holotrich and Entodiniomorph protozoa in rumen (p<0.05). The results indicate that supplementation of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip (YFCC) as a replacement concentrate at 14% CP could improve rumen fermentation efficiency in native cattle.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, one-year old of dairy heifers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 vs 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 vs 2,000 g in concentrate. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g + yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g + yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g + yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g + yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1 %BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. However, the concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid was slightly higher in heifer receiving T4 than T3, T2 and T1 (24.4, 22.9, 22.4 and 19.7%, respectively). The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70% DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with ruzi grass as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in dairy heifers.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Uthai Koatdoke , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g and cassava hay in high-quality feed block. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T2 = supplementation of high-quality feed block without cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g; T3 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 500 g; T4 = supplementation of high-quality feed block with cassava hay + malate at 1,000 g, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at 1.0% BW and ruzi grass was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and cassava hay supplementation. However, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. In conclusion, the combined use of cassava hay and malate at 1,000 g in high-quality feed block with concentrates containing high levels of cassava chip at 65% DM could highest improved rumen ecology in dairy steers.
  Sittisak Khampa , Pala Chaowarat , Uthai Koatdoke , Rungson Singhalert and Metha Wanapat
  Four, one-year old of native cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2x2 Factorial arrangement in a 4x4 Latin square design to study supplementation of malate level at 500 and 1,000 g with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 1,000 and 2,000 g in concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip. The treatments were as follows: T1 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T2 = supplementation of malate at 500 g with yeast at 2,000 g; T3 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 1,000 g; T4 = supplementation of malate at 1,000 g with yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate, respectively. The animals were offered the treatment concentrate at 1% BW of DM and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that concentration of volatile fatty acid was significantly different especially the concentration of propionic acid was slightly higher in cattle receiving T4 than T3, T2 and T1 (23.3, 21.9, 20.9 and 18.0%, respectively). The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by malate level and yeast. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 70% DM with malate at 1,000 g and yeast at 2,000 g in concentrate with urea-treated rice straw as a roughage could improved rumen ecology in native cattle.
  Krailas Kiyothong , Peter Rowlinson , Metha Wanapat and Sittisak Khampa
  Not available
  Ruangyote Pilajun and Metha Wanapat
  An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate effect of roughage to concentrate ratio (R:C) and coconut oil (CO) and wild almond seed oil (WO) supplementation on gas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, methane production and dry matter disappearance. Completely randomized design was used for sixteen treatments. Treatments were 4 x 4 factorial arrangement where four of R:C ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75) and four of oil supplementation (un-supplement, 5% CO, 5% WO and 2.5% CO+2.5% WO). The potential extent of gas production was quadratically responded to R:C ratio (p<0.01) while gas production from all fractions of feed were suppressed by oil supplementation (p<0.05). Total VFA production, propionic acid proportion and calculated methane production were linearly increased with concentrate ratio; while oil supplementation decreased (p<0.05) these parameters especially when supplemented with wild almond seed oil. Dry matter disappearance at 24 h of incubation was increased with concentrate quantity but decreased by oil supplementation (p<0.05). It could be concluded that R:C ratio and seed oil remarkably influenced on fermentation end-product and gas production.
 
 
 
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