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Articles by Md. Zahangir Alam
Total Records ( 8 ) for Md. Zahangir Alam
  Parveen Jamal , Md. Zahangir Alam , M. Ramlan. , M. Salleh and Munirah M. Akib
  This research emphasizes on the utilization of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) sludge, which is an inexpensive and easily available raw material and a good source for growth of microorganisms because it has enough nutrients and trace elements. This can be considered as an alternative cost effective solution for waste management in addition to production of a value added product citric acid, one of the important chemicals used in various industrial processes. The isolation of filamentous fungi especially Aspergillus was done from STP sludge for better adaptability. Six strains of Aspergillus were isolated from STP sludge and identified using slide culture technique followed by image analysis. Four strains (SC906, A103, A2017 and A1020) were selected from lab stock. All strains were screened under controlled fermentation conditions such as pH range of 2-3, temperature 30°C and agitation 150 rpm, using 1% (w/w) of substrate (STP sludge), 2% (w/w) co-substrate (wheat flour) with inoculum’s size of 2% (spore mL‾1), using liquid state fermentation process for the maximum production of citric acid. Evaluation of fungal potentiality was done in terms of maximum citric acid production, biosolids production (TSS %) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Strain A-SS106 produced the highest concentration of citric acid (0.14 g L‾1), TSS (15.18 g L‾1) and COD removal (90.1%) on fourth day of fermentation.
  Md. Zahangir Alam , Nurdina Muhammad and Mohd Erman Mahmat
  Solid state bioconversion (SSB) of lignocellulosic material oil palm biomass (OPB) generated from palm oil industries as waste was conducted by evaluating the enzyme production through filamentous fungus in lab-scale experiment. OPB in the form of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was used as the solid substrate and treated with the fungus Trichoderma harzianum to produce cellulase. The results presented in this study revealed that the higher cellulase activity of 0.0413 unit was achieved at the day 3 of fermentation. While the optimum study indicated the enzyme production of 0.0433 unit with moisture content of 50%, 0.0413 unit with 5% v/w of inoculum size and 0.0413 unit with co-substrate concentration of 2% (w/w) at days 9, 9 and 12 of fungal treatment, respectively. The parameters glucosamine and reducing sugar were observed to evaluate the growth and substrate utilization in the experiment.
  Parveen Jamal , Md. Zahangir Alam and Nurul Umi
  Bioprotein production is one of the most promising breakthroughs of biotechnological innovations. Due to its increasing demand, the efficient strains, substrate and method must be used for high yield product. In this study, screening of five different cerivisiea, Mucor hiemalis and Thricoderma harzianum, was done for bioprotein production by liquid state bioconversion of wheat flour as a cheaper carbon source. Bioconversion was done with fixed wheat flour concentration of 2% (w/v) at a temperature 27°C, agitation of 150 rpm with 2% inoculum (106 spores mL-1). Biomass production was recorded continuously for six days and the protein content was also determined every day. From the observed results, Mucor hiemalis was found to be the most potential strain with biomass of about 11.48 g L-1 on the fourth day of treatment. With this promising result, the amount of bioprotein was further increased to 21.89 g L-1 by optimizing few process factors. Further optimization developments are in progress. This study may provide a better alternative in agricultural products by converting cheaper carbon source to valuable and quality product bioprotein, which can be used as supplement and additive in the animal feed and food as well as in chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
  Ademola Monsur Hammed , Tawakalit Tope Asiyanbi-Hammed , Irwandi Jaswir , Azura Amid and Md. Zahangir Alam
  This study investigates effect of drying method on anti-inflammatory properties and composition of water soluble extracts obtained from brown seaweed, Turbinaria turbinata. T. turbinata was air-oven dried (50°C for 24 h) and freeze dried prior to extraction with water to obtained crude water extract. The crude extracts were partitioned into polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions. Method of drying did not affect the yield of water soluble components. Composition analysis revealed that extracts obtained from freeze dried biomass contain higher total sugar, uronic acid and polyphenol content, except in crude extract where oven dried matter was higher in total sugar and uronic acid content. Anti-inflammatory potential of the extracts was investigated using inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. Although, all extracts reduce secretion of Nitric Oxide (NO) differently, percentage NO inhibition between polyphenol fractions of freeze dried and oven dried sample was not significant. Freeze drying retain anti-inflammatory activities of polysaccharide fraction compared to oven drying. Temperature used during oven drying did not cause damage to bioactive compounds in polyphenol fraction of the seaweed. Therefore, either of the two drying methods can be used for dehydration of seaweed but freeze drying is preferred over oven drying when targeting polysaccharide.
  Jalal K.C.A. , Md. Zahangir Alam , Suleyman A. Muyibi and P. Jamal
  Forty six bacterial strains were isolated from nine different sources in four treatment plants namely Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) sewage treatment plant, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) treatment plant-1,-2 and –3 to evaluate the bioconversion process in terms of efficient biodegradation and bioseparation. The bacterial strains isolated were found to be 52.2% (24 isolates) and 47.8% (22 isolates) in the IWK and IIUM treatment plants respectively. The results showed that the higher microbial population (9-10x104 cfu mLˉ1) was observed in the secondary clarifier of IWK treatment plant. Only the gram-staining identification was done in the strains isolated from IWK treatment plant not to be determined from IIUM. Among the isolates from IWK, 10 isolates of gram-positive bacillus (GPB) and gram-positive cocci (GPC), 10 isolates of gram-negative bacillus (GNB) and rest were both or undetermined. Gram-negative cocci (GNC) were not found in the isolates from IWK.
  Afifah Drani , Md. Zahangir Alam and Suleyman A. Muyibi
  Potential fungal strains belonging to the genera of Penicillium, Trichoderma and Aspergillus were isolated from various waste sources and tested for their capability to produce cellulase enzyme using Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) sludge as a major substrate. The isolation technique was used in the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media incorporated with the sewage sludge (0.5% Total Suspended Solids, TSS). In addition 1 mL of streptomycin was used to control the growth of bacteria. Colonies appeared in the plate were transferred to the fresh PDA plate for purification and identification. Out of 35 strains, five strains were identified as the potential strains to produce cellulase through Filter Paper Activity (FPA) assay. These five promising strains were TH(U), S-105A and P2-STP isolated from STP sludge, P1-EFB isolated from Empty Fruit Bunched (EFB) compost and O-102A isolated from rotten orange. Various carbon sources; wheat flour, cassava flour, commercial sugar and cellulose were evaluated as a co-substrate with and without EFB supplement using these five potential strains. The strain O-102A was identified as the most promising strain that able to produce cellulase enzyme using STP sludge as a major substrate, cellulose as a co-substrate with supplement of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB).
  Nur Hanis Mohamad Hanapi , Md. Zahangir Alam and Mohd Ismail Abd Karim
  The optimization of supplementary nutrients in the sewage sludge as a basal medium was carried out to determine the media components on the citric acid production. Two statistical designs were employed in the citric acid productions which are Plackett-Burman (PB) and Central Composite Design (CCD). For the media screening, the two-level PB design was applied. Under the experimental conditions, it was observed that total suspended solids of sewage sludge (TSS), sugar, cassava, methanol, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate and urea to be the major factors in maximizing citric acid production. A study of single factor was conducted to find the optimum ranges of parameters for citric acid production followed by the Central Composite Design (CCD) under the responses surface methodology. A polynomial model was created to correlate the relationship between two factors (sewage sludge TSS and sugar) and citric acid production. The optimum yield of citric acid, 29.12 g L-1 was produced with 0.8% TSS sewage sludge and 7% sugar in four days of fermentation. The determination of coefficient (R2) from the analysis was 0.9527, indicating that the model of this experiment is significant. This study shows an effective solution to the sludge management for further development through the production of citric acid.
  Aliyu Salihu and Md. Zahangir Alam
  During biogas production, the rate-determining step for the conversion of complex organic matter is the hydrolysis. Different pretreatment methods aid in facilitating the anaerobic digestion by increasing the rate of organic matter hydrolysis. This in effect results in enhanced production of biogas and aids in waste stabilization as well as disposal. This review gives an overview of the methods used in pretreating organic wastes including mechanical, thermal, chemical and biological. In addition, hybrid method (physico-chemical) involving more than one technology has been useful in enhancing waste solubilization and anaerobic digestion. Thus, economic analysis including the cost of operation and the benefits derived in form of biogas, waste minimization and treatment should be considered during the selection of any pretreatment methods for large scale application.
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