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Articles by Mark A. Magnuson
Total Records ( 2 ) for Mark A. Magnuson
  Anil Kumar , Thurl E. Harris , Susanna R. Keller , Kin M. Choi , Mark A. Magnuson and John C. Lawrence Jr.
  Rictor is an essential component of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex 2 (mTORC2), a kinase complex that phosphorylates Akt at Ser473 upon activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase). Since little is known about the role of either rictor or mTORC2 in PI-3 kinase-mediated physiological processes in adult animals, we generated muscle-specific rictor knockout mice. Muscle from male rictor knockout mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the mice showed glucose intolerance. In muscle lacking rictor, the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 was reduced dramatically in response to insulin. Furthermore, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the Akt substrate AS160 at Thr642 was reduced in rictor knockout muscle, indicating a defect in insulin signaling to stimulate glucose transport. However, the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 was normal and sufficient to mediate the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Basal glycogen synthase activity in muscle lacking rictor was increased to that of insulin-stimulated controls. Consistent with this, we observed a decrease in basal levels of phosphorylated glycogen synthase at a GSK-3/protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-regulated site in rictor knockout muscle. This change in glycogen synthase phosphorylation was associated with an increase in the catalytic activity of glycogen-associated PP1 but not increased GSK-3 inactivation. Thus, rictor in muscle tissue contributes to glucose homeostasis by positively regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and negatively regulating basal glycogen synthase activity.
  G. Nana Hagan , Yenshou Lin , Mark A. Magnuson , Joseph Avruch and Michael P. Czech
  Insulin signaling through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activates the protein kinase Akt through phosphorylation of its threonine 308 and serine 473 residues by the PDK1 protein kinase and the Rictor-mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC2), respectively. Remarkably, we show here that the Rictor protein is also present in cultured adipocytes in complexes containing Myo1c, a molecular motor that promotes cortical actin remodeling. Interestingly, the Rictor-Myo1c complex is biochemically distinct from the previously reported mTORC2 and can be immunoprecipitated independently of mTORC2. Furthermore, while RNA interference-directed silencing of Rictor results in the expected attenuation of Akt phosphorylation at serine 473, depletion of Myo1c is without effect. In contrast, loss of either Rictor or Myo1c inhibits phosphorylation of the actin filament regulatory protein paxillin at tyrosine 118. Furthermore, Myo1c-induced membrane ruffling of 3T3-L1 adipocytes is also compromised following Rictor knockdown. Interestingly, neither the mTORC2 inhibitor rapamycin nor the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin affects paxillin tyrosine 118 phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that the Rictor-Myo1c complex is distinct from mTORC2 and that Myo1c, in conjunction with Rictor, participates in cortical actin remodeling events.
 
 
 
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