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Articles by Mardiati Zain
Total Records ( 19 ) for Mardiati Zain
  Mardiati Zain , Jurnida Rahman , Khasrad and Erpomen
  This experiment was to study the effect of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Sapindus rarak in diet Oil Palm Frond (OPF) based of nutrients digestibility and body weight gain of goats. Experimental desiegn used randomized blok design, with 4 treatments and 4 groups as replications. This experiment used six teen ettawa goats (40±8.5 kg liveweight). The four treatments were (A) native grass+concentrate (B), OPF (previously treated with 6% urea)+concentrate, (C) Diet B+1% Saccharomyces cerevisae and (D) Diet C+4% Sapindus rarak. The animals were adjusted to their treatments over a 2 week preliminary period which was followed by an 8 week experimental period. Feed intake was determined daily and live weight was measured every two week. Digestibility was measured by total faecal collection over 6 consecutive days on last week of experiment period. The results showed that the dry matter digestibility of treatment B (50.74%) were significantly lower than treatments A, C and D respectively (67.37, 62.38 and 65.71%) and supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was able to improve nutrient digestibility and body weight gain of goat, but still low compared to control (A). Addition of 4% Sapindus rarak in treatment D (123 g day–1) was able to provide digestibility and body weight gain similar to the control ration (132 g day–1). It can be concluded that the use of OPD as a substitute for grass in goat diets would give the same results with the grass when added 1% Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 4% Sapindus rarak.
  R.W.S. Ningrat , Mardiati Zain , Erpomen and Heny Suryani
  Background and Objective: Tannins have the ability to bind protein and can act to increase animal productivity by rendering protein inactive in the rumen and releasing it post-rumen for use by the animal for meat or milk production.This study was to determine the effect of supplementation of tannin from two different sources at different doses to ammoniated oil palm frond on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. Source of tannin is Gambier Leaves Waste (GLW) from Payakumbuh and Painan, two different districts in West Sumatera province. Doses of GLW on dry matter bases. Materials and Methods: The experiment was arranged in a block randomized design with seven treatments and three replications. The treatments were A = oil palm frond was treated with 4% urea, B1 = A+10% GLW Payakumbuh, B2 = A+ 15% GLW Payakumbuh, B3 = A+20% GLW Payakumbuh, C1 = A+10% GLW Painan, C2 = A+ 15% GLW Painan and C3 = A+20% GLW Painan. Variables measured were methane production, DM, OM, NDF and ADF digestibility, concentration of NH3-N, partial VFAs, microbial protein synthesis, population of rumen bacteria and protozoa and ruminal fluid pH. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among means were tested using Duncan. Results: The results showed that the supplementation of GLW were significantly (p<0.05) increased degradability, fermentability and reduce methane gas production. The treatment had no significant effect (p>0.05) on ruminal fluid pH, propionate production and population of bacteria. The DM digestibility increased from 48.45 (Treatment A)-52.95% (Treatment B2) and OM digestibility 51.34 (Treatment A)-57.30% (Treatment B2). The concentration of VFAs increased from 71.00-95.78 mM. Molar proportion of VFAs was shifted from acetate to propionate production and reduced the ratio of acetate to propionate. The rumen pH with supplementation of tannins is relatively more stable. Methane production decreased from 27.22 (Treatment A)-12.67 mM (Treatment B2) and to 15.13 mM (Treatment C1). The methane production reduced to 53% (Treatment B2) and 45% (Treatment C1) compare control. Conclusion: These results showed that 15% GLW Payakumbuh and 10% GLW Painan was suitable to be used as doses and source of tannins but the supplementation of 15% GLW Payakumbuh give the best results on digestibility and in reducing methane gas production.
  Mardiati Zain , N. Jamarun and Zulkarnaini
  This study tried to make use the ample supply of rice straw as the source of roughage. An experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of phosphorus and sulphur supplementation in rations containing ammoniated rice straw in beef cattle diets. The experiment used in randomized block design with cattle of 90±5.63 kg live weight. The experiment diets composed of 50% rice straw and 50% concentrate. The treatment were A = 50%rice straw, previously treated with 4% urea B = A+5% cassava leaves, C = B+0.4% P, D = C + 0.45%S. Differences among treatment means were examined using Duncan multiple range test. The results showed that there were significant differences of the consumption of dry matter and organic matter, digestibility of dry and organic matter and daily gain between treatments. The results indicated that intake, digestibility and daily gain of diets contains ammoniated rice straw with P and S supplementation were significantly higher than the control diet (p<0.05). It is concluded that P and S supplementation is important to improve degradability and daily gain of rations contain rice straw ammoniated. The best result showed at treatment D where, dry matter intake was 3407 g day-1, organic matter intake was 3340 g day-1, digestibility of dry matter was 64% and digestibility of organic matter was 66.90% and daily weight gain was 610.25 g day-1.
  Rusmana Wijaya Setia Ningrat , Mardiati Zain , Erpomen and Heni Suryani
  Background and Objective: Tannins have the ability to reduce methane production in ruminants, thereby increasing the efficiency of the utilization of energy and optimizing animal body weight gain. This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of supplementation of tannins from two different sources of ammoniated oil palm frond in diets based on ammoniated oil palm as a source of roughage, on the feed intake, digestibility and daily weight gain of beef cattle. The source of the tannin is gambier leaf waste (GLW) from Lima Puluh Kota and Pesisir Selatan, two districts in West Sumatra province. Materials and Methods: The study was designed using Latin Square Design (LSD). Treatment A, the control, was a complete cattle feed consisting of oil palm frond pre-treated with 6% urea+concentrate. Treatment B was Diet A+10% GLW Painan and treatment C was diet A+15% GLW Payakumbuh. Each treatment had a roughage to concentrate ratio of 50:50. Parameters measured were feed intake, nutrient digestibility, body weight gain and methane production. Results: Results showed that treatments had no significant (p>0.05) effects on intakes of dry matter and organic matter, but did have a significant effect (p<0.05) on nutrient digestibility, average daily gain and methane production. Digestibility of dry matter increased from 59.95% (treatment A) to 62.02 and 63.52% with treatments C and B, respectively. Methane production decreased from 2.48 MJ/day (treatment A) to 1.28 MJ/day and 1.26 MJ/day with treatments B and C, respectively and daily weight gain increased from 0.65-0.90 and 0.95 kg/day. Conclusion: The results showed that the supplementation of GLW increased nutrient digestibility and daily weight gain and reduced methane production. There was no significant difference between sources of GLW.
  Dewi Febrina , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Khasrad
  Background and Objective: The utilization of oil palm fronds (OPFs) as feed is limited due to their high lignin content. The biodelignification of OPFs with Phanerochaete chrysosporium plus the elements Ca and Mn can break down lignocellulose and lignin hemicellulose bonds. Supplementation of fermented oil palm fronds (FOPFs) with P, S and Mg results in the highest microbial protein synthesis and VFA concentration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium in goat rations containing fermented oil palm fronds (FOPFs; fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium) on nutrient digestibility. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out using a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The following treatments were performed: A = 40% Napier grass (NG)+0% FOPFs+60% concentrate; B = 20% NG+20% FOPFs+60% concentrate; C = 0% NG+40% FOPFs+60% concentrate; D = 20% NG+20% FOPFs +60% concentrate plus P, S and Mg and E = 0% NG+40% FOPFs+60% concentrate plus P, S and Mg. The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences between treatments were tested using Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT).The observed parameters were digestibility of the nutrients. Results: Supplementation with phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium in goat rations that contained fermented oil palm fronds by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at concentrations of 40 and 60% resulted in the highest digestibility of the nutrients. Conclusion: Supplementation with P, S and Mg in goat rations containing FOPFs is indispensable for the growth and activity of rumen microbes.
  Mardiati Zain , T. Sutardi , Suryahadi and N. Ramli
  This experiment tried to make use the ample supply of palm press fiber (PPF) as the source of roughage. The experiment used in 5x5 Latin Square feeding trial in sheep of 9.4±1.63 kg live weight. he experiment diets composed of 50% elephant grass or 50% PPF and 50% concentrate. The treatment were A = 505% elephant grass, B = 50% PPF, previously treated with 1.5% urea, C = B+1.5% corn oil, D = C+0.1% Ca salt of methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) and E = D+0.1% val+0.15% leu dan 0.2% ile (Branced Chain Amino Acid = BCAA). Animal on the ammoniated PPF diet (B) had less cultivable rumen bacteria than those on elephant grass 90.88 x 1011 vs 1.09 x 1011 colonies/ml). Addition of corn oil (C) reduced the viable rumen protozoa (1.43 x 105 to 1.27 x 105 cell c/ml. The decrease was accompanied by the increase in bacteria to 1.14 x 1011 colonies/ml and digestibility to 59.4%. Supplementation of MHA (D) increased the bacteria to 1.63 x 10 colonies/ml. The bacterial counts were increased further to 1.89 x 1011 colinies/ml by the BCAA (E). The later treatment was better in digestibility and N retention than the control but had same effect on growth performance of the animal (104 vs 102 g/d). The live weight gain of the later treatment (E) was significantly better than those on treatment B, C or D.
  Mardiati Zain , N. Jamarun and Nurhaita
  In vitro studies were conducted to determine effect of supplementation various amount of sulfur (Ammonium sulphate) on fermentability and degradability of ammoniated rice straw. The in vitro experiment was carried out following the first stage of Tilley and Terry method. The treatments consisting of four levels of sulfur, were A = ammoniated Rice Straw (RS) (control), B = A + 0.15% Sulfur (S) supplement, C = A + 0.3% Sulfur supplement and D = A + 0.45% sulfur supplement on dry matter. Completely randomized design was used as the experimental design and differences among treatment means were examined using Duncan multiple range test. Variables measured were Ammonia (NH3) and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) concentrations, as fermentability indicators, as well as degradability indicators including degradability of Dry Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) and cellulose. The results indicated that fermentability and degradability of diets consisting ammoniated RS with Sulfur supplementation were significantly higher than the control diet (p<0.05). It is concluded that sulfur supplementation is important to improve fermentability and degradability of rations containing ammoniated RS. The best level of sulfur supplementation is obtained at 0.3% on dry matter.
  Mardiati Zain , Jurnida Rahman , Khasrad and Erpomen
  The aim of this experiment was to study the use of palm oil by products [oil palm fronds (OPF), palm oil sludge (POS) and palm kernel cake (PKC)], that supplemented with Sapindus rarak and Sacharomyces cerevisiae on digestibility and fermentation in vitro. Oil Palm Fronds was previously treated with 3% urea. The treatments consist of 50% OPF+30% POS+20% PKC as a control diet (A), B = A+4% Sapindus rarak, C = A+0.5% Sacharomyces cerevisiae and D = A+4% Sapindus rarak+0.5% Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Digestibility of DM, OM, ADF, NDF, cellulose and rumen parameters (NH3 and VFA) of all treatments were significantly different (p<0.05). Product of fermentation and digestibility treatment A were significantly lower than treatments B, C and D. The result indicated that supplementation Sapindus rarak and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were able to improve fermentability and digestibility of palm oil by product.
  Dewi Febrina , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Khasrad
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sulfur, phosphorus and magnesium supplementation of oil palm fronds fermented by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on rumen fluid characteristics and microbial protein synthesis. This research was carried out using a randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The following treatments were performed: A = fermented oil palm fronds (FOPFs); B = FOPFs+0.4% P; C = FOPFs+0.4% P+0.3% S and D = FOPFs+0.4% P+0.3% S+0.1% Mg. The data were subjected to analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and differences between treatments were tested using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The observed parameters were microbial protein synthesis and rumen fluid characteristics. Supplementation of FOPFs with P, S and Mg resulted in the highest microbial protein synthesis and VFA concentration.
  Dewi Febrina , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Khasrad
  The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of calcium and manganese supplementation during oil palm frond fermentation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on in vitro digestibility and rumen fluid characteristics. This research used a Completely Randomized Design comprising two factors as treatments and each treatment was repeated three times. The factors were Ca dose (1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 ppm) and Mn dose (50, 100 and 150 ppm). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance to measure the differences among treatments; Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to determine the significance of differences. The parameters measured were as follows: digestibility of dry matter (%), organic matter (%), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) (%), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) (%), cellulose (%) and hemicellulose (%). The rumen fluid characteristics considered included the following: pH and the concentrations of NH3 (mM) and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) (mM). The results indicated interactions between Ca and Mn in relation to the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF, cellulose, pH, NH3 and VFA concentration of rumen fluid. The optimal combination of the minerals used were 2.000 ppm of Mn and 150 ppm of Ca; these values yielded the highest values of digestibility of dry matter (41.914%), organic matter (40.990%), NDF (66.429%), ADF (64.396%) and cellulose (68.524%) and the highest concentration of VFA (117.302 mM).
  Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain , Arief and Roni Pazla
  Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and manganese (Mn) supplementation during Oil Palm Frond (OPF) fermentation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and in vitro fiber digestibility. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a randomized block design with 3 treatments (Addition of Ca, P and Mn) and 5 replications. The following treatments were performed: T1 = Ca 2000+P 1000+Mn 150 ppm, T2 = Ca 2000+P 1500+Mn 150 ppm, T3 = Ca 2000+P 2000+Mn 150 ppm. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences between treatment means were tested using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The parameters measured were as follows: Laccase activity (U mL –1), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) digestibility (%), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) digestibility (%), cellulose digestibility (%) and hemicellulose digestibility (%). Results: Results revealed that laccase enzyme activity, NDF digestibility, ADF digestibility and cellulose digestibility were significantly increased by the addition of P in T3. However, T2 and T3 non-significantly affected (p>0.05) the digestibility of hemicelluloses. Conclusion: It is concluded that supplementation of OPFs with Ca 2000, P 2000 and Mn 150 ppm resulted in the highest laccase activity and in vitro fiber digestibility.
  Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain , Arief and Roni Pazla
  Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and manganese (Mn) supplementation during Oil Palm Frond (OPF) fermentation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on rumen fluid characteristics and Microbial Protein Synthesis (MPS). Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a randomized block design with 3 treatments (the addition of Ca, P and Mn) and 5 replications. The following treatments were performed: T1 = 2000 ppm Ca+1000 ppm P+150 ppm Mn, T2 = 2000 ppm Ca+1500 ppm P+150 ppm Mn and T3 = 2000 ppm Ca+2000 ppm P+150 ppm Mn. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test for comparisons among the treatment means. The parameters measured were as follows: pH, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) (mM), NH3 (mM), total protozoa (cells mL–1) (log 10), total bacteria (cells mL–1) (log 10) and MPS (mg mL–1). Results: The results revealed that VFA levels were significantly increased by the addition of P in T3. However, T1, T2 and T3 non-significantly affected (p>0.05) pH, NH3, total protozoa, total bacterial and MPS. Conclusion: The supplementation of OPFs with 2000 ppm Ca, 2000 ppm P and 150 ppm Mn resulted in the best rumen fluid characteristics and MPS.
  Dewi Febrina , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Khasrad
  Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Napier Grass (NG) with Fermented Oil Palm Fronds (FOPFs) plus minerals (P, S and Mg) on consumption and growth performance of goats. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments for this study were: A = 40% NG+0% FOPFs+60% concentrate, B = 20% NG+20% FOPFs+60% concentrate, C = 0% NG+40% FOPFs+60% concentrate, D = 20% NG+20% FOPFs+60% concentrate plus P, S and Mg and E = 0% NG+40% FOPFs+60% concentrate plus P, S and Mg. The data were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to test the differences between treatments. The observed parameters were feed consumption and growth performance of goats. Results: The results of the study show that substituting NG with FOPFs (100%) plus minerals (P, S and Mg) in goat rations (treatment E) showed the highest nutrient consumption and average daily weight gain and the lowest feed conversion. Conclusion: It is concluded that FOPFs can be used as an alternative to NG in goat rations.
  Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain , Arief and Roni Pazla
  Objective: The aim of this research was to identify the rumen microbial populations and determine the in vitro nutrient digestibility of fermented oil palm fronds (FOPF) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which were supplemented with Ca, P and Mn minerals and combined with tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Methodology: This study used a randomized block design consisting of 4 treatment groups: T1 = 20% FOPF+80% (tithonia+elephant grass), T2 = 40% FOPF+60% (tithonia+elephant grass), T3 = 60% FOPF+40% (tithonia+elephant grass) and T4 = 80% FOPF+20% (tithonia+elephant grass). Four replicates were used per treatment. The ratio of tithonia to elephant grass was 1:4. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among means were tested using Duncan’s multiple range tests (DMRT) with 5 and 1% confidence intervals. The measured variables were total bacteria, total protozoa, dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and crude fiber digestibility (CFD). Results: The results showed that total population of bacteria, DMD, OMD and CFD were the highest (p<0.01) in the T1 treatment. Total protozoa were lowest in T1 but the difference with the other treatments was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: T1 (combination of 20% FOPF and 80% tithonia+elephant grass) had the best effect on rumen microbial populations and in vitro digestibility.
  Roni Pazla , Mardiati Zain , H. Irsan Ryanto and Afrini Dona
  Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the productivity of sheep that were fed a complete diet consisting of ammoniated cocoa waste (leaves and pod husks) supplemented with minerals (phosphorus and sulfur) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). Methodology: Four local sheep aged 10 months to 1 year were used in this study and were divided into 4 feed treatment groups (four sheeps per/treatment) with four replications for each treatment as follows: Treatment A served as the control and sheep were fed a complete diet that consisted of cocoa waste (fiber source)+concentrate, treatment B consisted of treatment A+0.4% phosphorous (P) and 0.3% sulfur (S), treatment C consisted of treatment B+1% S. cerevisiae and treatment D consisted of treatment B+2% S. cerevisiae. Each treatment had a fiber source: concentrate ratio of 40:60. The data collected included feed intake, nutrient digestibility, average daily weight gain and feed efficiency. Results: Treatment C had highly significant effects (p<0.01) on dry matter intake, organic matter intake, crude protein intake, digestibility, crude fiber intake, average daily gain and feed efficiency. Thus, the complete diet consisting of ammoniated cocoa waste increased feed intake, digestibility, daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The use of ammoniated cocoa waste-based complete feed with minerals (P and S) and 1% S. cerevisiae yielded 130 g/day of average daily weight gain. Conclusion: The diet consisting of ammoniated cocoa waste supplemented with minerals (P and S) and 1% Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be effectively used for fattening sheep.
  Akmal , Novirman Jamarun and Mardiati Zain
  Background and Objective: Manure accumulation in open areas for long periods of time promotes the synthesis of ammonia (NH3) by microbes and its emission to the atmosphere. Forage plants are used as ammonia trapsin poultry farms. This study aims to evaluate the potential of planting dwarf elephant grass and Gliricidia sepium around poultry farms to trap ammonia. Methodology: This study used a complete randomized design with a 2×3 factorial pattern with 6 replications as follows: Factor A: Two species (Dwarf elephant grass and Gliricidia sepium) and Factor B: The distance of the cages from the laying hen (1.5, 3 and 100 m). The parameters measured were the dry matter forage yield, plant height, protein content, ammonia concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Results: The dry matter production of dwarf elephant grass was higher than that of Gliricidia sepium (0.5 vs 0.24 kg pot–1), but for the other parameters, such as the plant height, protein content and dry matter digestibility, the values for Gliricidia sepium were higher than those for dwarf elephant grass. Regarding the plant’s distance from the cage, a distance of 1.5 m yielded the highest levels of dry matter, forage yield, plant height, protein content and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The ammonia concentration at the cage of the laying hen was 7.7 ppm and at a distance of 3 m was 0.88 ppm. Conclusion: Gliricidia sepium was effective at absorbing air borne NH3. Plants 1.5 m from the laying hen cage showed the best results.
  Roni Pazla , Novirman Jamarun , Mardiati Zain and Arief
  Objective: The aim of this research was to measure microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium and determine its in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentability of fermented oil palm fronds (FOPF) under supplementation with Ca, P and Mn minerals and grown with tithonia (T) and elephant grass (EG). Methodology: This study used a randomized block design consisting of four treatment groups: T1 = 20% FOPF+16% T+64% EG, T2 = 40% FOPF+12% T+48% EG, T3 = 60% FOPF+8%, T+32% EG and T4 = 80% FOPF+4% T+16% EG. Four replicates were used per treatment. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among the means were tested using Duncan’s multiple range tests (DMRT) with 5 and 1% confidence intervals. The variables measured were crude protein (CP) digestibility (CPD), cellulose digestibility (CD), ammonia (NH3) concentration, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content and fluid ruminal pH values as indicators of fermentability and MPS. Results: The results showed that CPD, CD, NH3 concentration, VFA content and MPS were the highest (p<0.01) in the T1 treatment. However, pH was lowest (p<0.01) in T1. Conclusion: The combination of 20% FOPF+16% T+64% EG had the best effect on MPS, in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentability.
  Ramaiyulis , Rusmana Wijaya Setia Ningrat , Mardiati Zain and Lili Warly
  Background and Objective: This study aimed to achieve optimal microbial protein synthesis by adding various levels of gambier leaf residue (GLR) to cattle feed supplement (CFS). Materials and Methods: Gambier (Uncaria gambir Roxb) leaf residue containing 9.96% condensed tannins was added at levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% (DM) to CFS formula containing 29% crude protein and then tested in vitro rumen digestion. Results: Addition of 5% GLR significantly decreased the rumen protozoan population by 24.43% (p<0.05) and decreased the NH3-N content (p<0.01) but did not affect the pH or total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content (p>0.05). The mean of the microbial biomass was 111-285 mg 100–1 mL of rumen fluid and the microbial protein concentration was 59-157 mg 100–1 mL of rumen fluid, which was highest at 5.0 GLR (p<0.01). Overall, the rate of microbial biomass production, rate of microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were 7.30-10.18 mg 100–1 mL h–1, 3.86-5.62 mg 100–1 mL h–1 and 16-47 mg microbial protein 100–1 mg digested organic matter, respectively, with the highest rate at 5.0% GLR and the lowest rate in controls (p<0.01). Conclusion: Addition of 5.0% GLR to CFS can optimize microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.
  Elihasridas , Mardiati Zain , Yetti Marlida and Andri
  Background and Objective: This study aimed to determine the energy and protein balance in male Simmental cattle when fed diets with different protein and energy levels. Methodology: The experimental design used a randomized block design (RBD) with a 2×3×3 factorial pattern. There were two factors, namely, Factor A, which was the level of dietary energy (65 or 70% TDN) and Factor B, which was the level of dietary protein (10, 12 or 14%). Each treatment was repeated 3 times. The diet consisted of ammoniated rice straw and a concentrate and was fed at a ratio of 40:60. The concentrate consisted of palm kernel cake, rice bran, cassava, mineral and urea. The measured variables were intake; the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP), daily gain, urine allantoin, blood metabolites and feed efficiency. Results: There was no interactive effect between the protein and energy levels of the diet on nutrient intake (DM intake, OM intake and CP intake), weight gain, or efficiency (p<0.05). There was an interactive effect between the dietary protein and energy levels on nutrient digestibility (DM, OM and CP) and urine allantoin (p>0.01). Nutrient intake tended to decrease with increasing levels of energy and protein in the diet, while nutrient digestibility increased with increasing energy levels in the diet but did not significantly change with increasing protein levels in the diet. The average daily gain and feed efficiency improved with the increasing levels of energy in the diet. There was an interactive effect (p<0.05) between the energy and protein levels on the cholesterol and HDL levels. Cholesterol levels increased with increasing levels of protein in the ration. There was no interactive effect (p>0.05) between the protein and energy levels on LDL, total protein, glucose, albumin, globulin, calcium or urea. Conclusion: It can be concluded that treatment A2B2, namely, an energy level of 70% TDN and a protein level of 12%, could provide the best reproductive performance of Simmental cattle in tropical areas.
 
 
 
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