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Articles by Mahmoud Alagawany
Total Records ( 18 ) for Mahmoud Alagawany
  Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada Ragab Farag and Kuldeep Dhama
  Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as untraditional feedstuff has been available for feed industry for many years and became a nutritional and economical feed ingredient. According to recent studies, DDGS is usually used at low concentrations (10 or 15%) as a feed ingredient in laying hen diets without adverse effects on laying performance, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility, egg quality criteria and economics. Because DDGS became available in feed market in large amounts, the ability of using higher DDGS inclusion rate in poultry feed has become an interest for several researchers and poultry producers. Using such untraditional feedstuffs aims mainly to decrease the feed costs. Researchers assured that feeding higher levels of DDGS could have a significant effect on the cost of feed for poultry producers because of higher availability of DDGS and the current price fluctuations of feed ingredients. On the other hand, beneficial effects of DDGS on the environment have also been reported. These beneficial effects could be represented through mitigating harmful emissions and pollution from manure which provides production within clean atmosphere. Findings from different researches on the use of DDGS as feed ingredient for laying hens are illustrated in this review. Moreover, this study describes advanced information regarding the use of corn DDGS as untraditional feedstuff for laying hens involving its production process and nutritive value along with its useful effects on laying hens production traits, egg quality, apparent digestibility, economics and the impact on the surrounding environment in poultry house.
  Mayada Ragab Farag , Mahmoud Alagawany and Kuldeep Dhama
  Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the hepatic and renal toxicity of acephate (ACE) insecticide in broiler chicks by studying the hematological, biochemical, oxido-inflammatory and pathological changes after subacute exposure to ACE in diet and to evaluate the modulatory role of flaxseed oil (FSO) on these changes. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty day-old un-sexed broiler chicks (average body weight of 45.52±0.25 g) were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 4 replicates of 15 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The first group was fed a basal diet, 2nd group fed basal diet supplemented with 85.2 ppm acephate, while the 3rd group fed basal diet supplemented with 1000 ppm flaxseed oil, while the 4th group fed basal diet supplemented with 85.2 ppm ACE+1000 ppm FSO for 4 weeks. Results: The ACE significantly (p<0.05) decreased hemoglobin content, erythrocytic count and packed cell volume while increased white blood cells, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. Moreover, there was a significant increase in lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride) and serum biomarkers related to hepatic and renal functions including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine with no change in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and albumin while, serum total protein, globulin and HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly reduced with ACE group in comparison with other treatment groups. The ACE significantly (p<0.05) decreased the antioxidant capacity of liver and kidney and increased lipid peroxidation, interleukine-2 (IL-2) tumor and necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the two organs while increased the activity of cytochrome P450 in liver only. Diet supplemented with FSO showed promising modulatory effects on these undesirable changes however, some did not restored to normal levels. Conclusion: It is recommended to use FSO regularly as a dietary supplement for broiler chicks to provide them powerful antioxidants required to protect these birds against environmental pollution.
  Mahmoud Alagawany , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mayada Ragab Farag , Ruchi Tiwari , Swati Sachan , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  Protein plays an important role in the diet formulation of poultry to maintain/improve growth, feed utilization, immune functions and maximize productive performance, ensure bird welfare, as well as mitigate environmental risks and pollution by optimizing the use of this nutrient. Also, proteins assist in the biosynthesis of tissues and have many biological functions for growth and renewal of the body. Moreover, proteins exist in forms of hormones and enzymes which play crucial roles in the physiological processes in the body. Layer birds have low dietary Crude Protein (CP) requirements, thus identification of the optimum level of CP in layer diets, for either maximizing productive performance or economic returns of laying hens, requires more and more information/knowledge about birds needs of protein and its impacts on performance parameters and environmental pollution. This biomolecule plays active role in physiological dynamics, in stabilizing the immune barrier and to drive the forces for maintaining the enhanced production performance of layers. The broad goal of the current review is to highlight the importance of CP-diet and its positive and negative effects on body weight change, performance, feed and nutrient utilization, egg production parameters, egg quality criteria as well as chemical composition of egg and its fractions, egg shell quality, blood biochemical parameters, immune function, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen pollution. The discussed concepts and knowledge would be useful for both backyard poultry rearers and poultry industry holders by optimizing the level of crude protein in the fed diet and will definitely be helpful for gaining the economic profits and consumers satisfaction.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Shyma K. Latheef , Saminathan Mani , Hari Abdul Samad , K. Karthik , Ruchi Tiwari , Rifat Ullah Khan , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada R. Farag , Gazi Mahabubul Alam , Vito Laudadio and Vincenzo Tufarelli
  Herbal medicine or herbalism is a time-honored practice of natural medicine that is older than mankind itself. The practice of using traditional herbal medicine based therapy is nowadays gaining more attention worldwide in both human and animal health care systems. Among the livestock sectors, poultry production systems are the most intensively reared with developments especially in the areas of nutrition, disease control, genetic improvement, management and organization of dietary requirements along with the pressure of increasing demand for poultry products as well as threats of emerging pathogens. So this sector is badly in need of sustainable therapeutic and production aids especially based on herbs because of the advantages like, low cost, easy availability, no residual effect, free from the threat of antibiotic resistance etc. Many herbs have been recorded to be fruitfully used by veterinarians to treat a variety of disease conditions in animals. The present study discusses the various useful and practical applications of the rich heritage of herbal wealth for safeguarding poultry health in general, combating infectious as well as non-infectious diseases caused by microbes and parasites )both ecto-and endo parasites( along with immunomodulatory actions for countering immunosuppressive diseases. Moreover, highlighting herb-based poultry growth promoters for increasing production performances use of herbs as antioxidants and their role in organic egg and meat production is a special attraction of the review that will draw the attention of the poultry specialists as well as farming community. The information will be useful to increase poultry production and protect the health of birds in a better way from traditional ways towards modern perspectives and also would promote and popularize usage of herbs amongst poultry producers.
  Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack , Samir A. Mahgoub , Mahmoud Alagawany and Kuldeep Dhama
  This study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation of antimicrobial cold pressed oils mixture [1:1:1 of Nigella sativa, cloves and rosemary (NCR)] at levels of 0.75 and 1.5 g kg–1 diet, on growth performance, carcass traits and some microbiological aspects for growing Japanese quails. A total number of 225 growing Japanese quails one week old were used in a complete randomized design experiment with three treatments. Final live body weight was significantly (p<0.01) higher by 2.89% in quails fed diet supplemented with 1.5 g NCR oil compared to those fed the control diet. Feed intake increased statistically (p<0.01) as the level of oil mixture supplement increased. The best feed conversion of 2.87 was associated with 1.5 g oil during period 3-6 weeks of age, whilst the control group gave the best feed conversion within the whole period (1-6 weeks of age) followed by the experimental group treated with 1.5 g NCR oil. Feeding quails on a diet enriched with 1.5 g NCR oil resulted in the best carcass percentage which increased by 3.72% compared to those fed the control diet. The populations of Total Bacterial Count (TBC), coliforms and Escherichia coli in ileum, ceca and feces were fewer (p<0.05) in quails fed diet supplemented with NCR oil mixtures (1.5 g w/w) compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of antimicrobial cold pressed oils mixture by 1.5 g kg–1 showed the potential to enhance the growth performance and reduce intestinal and excreta pathogenic bacteria in quails.
  Mayada Ragab Farag , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack and Kuldeep Dhama
  Spirulina (Arthrospira) is a microscopic blue-green algae and it is considered as one of the richest sources of organic nutrients that are making it a good nutritional supplement for human and animal feed worldwide. Spirulina contains good quality proteins, vitamins and minerals in addition to a wide variety of natural carotene and xanthophyll phytopigments. Owing to its unique and impressive nutrient composition, Spirulina is used as a dietary inclusion in a large scale of food products not only to enhance their nutritional qualities but also for therapeutic purposes. On this aspect, many researchers studied the beneficial effects of Spirulina and reported its enhancing potential on the productive and reproductive performance, improving general health as well as lowering the problems of different animal diseases like arthritis, diabetes, anaemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. Other studies have demonstrated that Spirulina possess some promising biological activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, radio protective and metalloprotective effects. These pharmaceutical and medicinal properties of Spirulina could be attributed to some natural constituents such as phycocyanin, carotene, tocopherols, linolenic acid and phenolic compounds that had been shown to have strong antioxidant properties and powerful scavenging activities against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) like superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. This review illustrates the beneficial effects of Arthrospira on poultry, animals and human health and throws the light on its ability to protect the body physiological system against oxidative damage and as nutraceutical and source of potential pharmaceuticals based mainly on the highest levels of evidence available in the literature.
  Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada Ragab Farag , Ruchi Tiwari , Kumaragurubaran Karthik and Kuldeep Dhama
  In the present era of emerging antibiotic/drug resistance against pathogenic organisms and food safety concerns of their toxic residues as well as slow process of discovering newer antibiotics, there is a dire need for using natural and effective alternatives. In this regard, herbal and aromatic plants and/or their extracts are gaining attention of worldwide researchers. Studies on Nigella sativa (black cumin) seeds show promising results that it could provide a suitable alternative to antibiotics as growth promoter and safeguard various health issues of animals and humans. The seeds of black cumin with thymoquinone as its main active constituent are mainly used for medicinal purposes and could be used as food spice and nutritional supplements. These have beneficial antinociceptive, antimicrobial, growth enhancing, antiparasitic, immunomoulatory, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and bronchodilating effects. Blood pressure regulating as well as bile flow stimulating effects have also been observed. Black cumin seeds have been used widely against several diseases, disorders and ailments of humans and animals including bronchial asthma, cough, bronchitis, lung inflammation, microbial infections, fever, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, gastric ulcers, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, alzheimer disease, headache, diabetes, allergy, obesity, back pain, skin diseases, eczema, jaundice, anorexia, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, intrinsic hemorrhages, amenorrhea and immune disorders, which altogether indicate their potent therapeutic values and biomedicinal perspectives. The aim of this study is to provide comprehensive and recent information about the nutritional, healthical, pharmaceutical, therapeutic and biomedical applications and prospects of Nigella sativa seeds in feeding humans, animals and poultry.
  Zaib Ur Rehman , Ahsan Ul Haq , Naasra Akram , Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack , Muhammad Saeed , Shahid Ur Rehman , Chunchun Meng , Mahmoud Alagawany , Maryam Sayab , Kuldeep Dhama and Chan Ding
  Objective: The present study was performed to determine the influence of dietary Acetic Acid (AA) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, blood hematology and serum constituents of broilers. Methodology: A total 200 chicks were randomly divided into five experimental groups with four replicates each (10 chicks/replicate) in a complete randomized design experiment. Treatments were as follow: (AA0: control, AA1: basal diet+0.1% acetic acid kg–1, AA2: basal diet+0.2% acetic acid kg–1 and AA3: basal diet+0.3% acetic acid kg–1). Results: The results showed that AA supplementation improved weight gain (p<0.001) and feed conversion ratio (p<0.001). Generally, acetic acid supplementation at 0.3% level improved bird’s performance during 2-6 weeks of age. Increased intestinal length and higher intestinal weight were recorded in AA treated birds. Significant reduction in pH of proventriculus and ventriculus (p<0.01) was observed with in dose related manner. No significant effects were observed on dressing percentage. Histological observations revealed that intestinal morphology professed positive effects under AA treatment. Furthermore, the effect of dietary AA supplementation was significant (p<0.05) only on lymphocytes count and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. It is obvious that blood of birds fed AA3 diet had the highest concentration of calcium, phosphorous, total protein and globulin comparing with the control diet and other levels of AA. The best results of all parameters were observed in AA3. Conclusion: Based on the results, it could be concluded that AA supplementations in feed employs positive effect on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers.
  Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada Ragab Farag , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Elisabetta Casalino , Vincenzo Tufarelli , Maryam Sayab and Kuldeep Dhama
  Objective: The current study was conducted to assess the biological in vitro impacts of cyadox (CYA) as growth promoter on erythrocytes isolated from rabbits. Methodology: Suspensions of erythrocytes were divided into 6 groups (5 replicates each), 1st group served as control; 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th groups were respectively subjected to CYA at 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg mL–1, then incubated for 3 and 6 h at 37°C and shaken gently from 3-4 times per hour. Results: The data obtained revealed that the low doses of CYA (2.5 and 5 μg mL–1) diminished the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and enhanced the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities even after incubation with CYA for 6 h. These concentrations also had no linear or quadratic influences on the values of malonaldehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PrC) as well as the hemoglobin (Hb), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total protein (TP) levels in erythrocytes. Increasing the concentration of CYA (10, 20 and 40 μg mL–1) and increasing the incubation period resulted in depletion of GSH, inhibited the CAT and SOD activities and decreased the protein content in the treated RBCs while the levels of PrC, MDA, Hb, TP and ATP were increased in response to increasing the dose and incubation time. Conclusion: From these results it could be concluded that CYA may be safe at recommended doses (2.5 and 5 μg mL–1) while using at high concentrations revealed pro-oxidant properties which could in turn affect cell survival.
  Rab Nawaz Soomro , Rujiu Hu , Yu Qiao , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi , Mohamed Abdalla Elsiddig Mohamed , Bello Musa Bodinga , Mahmoud Alagawany , Xiaojun Yang , Junhu Yao and Kuldeep Dhama
  Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein soybean meal (SBM) and cottonseed meal (CSM) sources and Amino Acid (AA) balances on performance, intestinal permeability and morphology in broiler chickens. Methodology: Five hundred and twenty broiler chickens were fed an experimental diet from 21-42 days of age. A completely randomized block design was used with four treatments of SBM+CSM with AA Balance (B) and Imbalance (I) (SBMB and SBMI, SBM+CSMB and SBM+CSMI) were replicated 10 times with 13 broiler chickens per replicate. All respective treatments were kept in the same condition provide the diet twice a day and access to water ad libitum. Results: The results showed that Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Daily Feed Intake (DFI), feed efficiency, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), carcass yield and dressing percentage were improved with SBMB in comparison with all treatments. Furthermore, SBMB significantly increased most of morphological findings in the intestinal parts studied. Intestinal permeability was (p<0.05) increased in SBMI and SBM+CSMI treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that the best performance indices could be obtained by using SBMB carcasses and morphological findings in comparison with other treatments.
  Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mayada Ragab Farag , Muhammad Arif , Mohamed Emam , Kuldeep Dhama , Muhammad Sarwar and Maryam Sayab
  The concept of "Nanoparticle" is not applied to the individual molecules but it is usually used to indicate to the inorganic materials. These particles vary into different kinds due to their ability to carry different components and act to various conditions of the environment. The different sorts of nanoparticles are used in various sectors such as nutrition, pharmacy, medicine, drug delivery, therapeutics, vaccine formulations, diagnostics, chemical industry, biotechnology and biomedicine for safeguarding health of humans and animals as well as enhancing growth and production performances. The application of nanotechnology is very important in the 21st century to clean up the environment from contaminants by eco-friendly, sustainable, green and economically technologies. Nanotechnology became an essential element of pharmaceutical sciences and nanomaterials have found many applications in systems of drug delivery to enhance the therapeutic performance and efficacy of different drugs and medicines. Most of the current "Nano" systems of drug delivery are linage of conventional dosage forms like nanomicelles, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions. Also, nanotechnology will have a major role in the future areas of animal nutrition research. Nano additives could be incorporated in capsules or micelles of protein or other natural feed or food component. The use of nutrient nanoparticles may improve the bioavailability of carried nutrients by the epithelial barriers of the gut and their susceptibility to gastrointestinal degradation by digestive enzymes. Offering the matter in a nano form may also improve the functionality of feed/food molecules to the benefit of final product quality.
  Muhammad Saeed , Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Muhammad A. Arain , Muhammad Arif , Muhammad A. Mirza , Muhammad Naveed , Sun Chao , Muhammad Sarwar , Maryam Sayab and Kuldeep Dhama
  Chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a perennial herbal plant of the dandelion family Asteraceae, usually with bright blue flowers, rarely pink or white. Several varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons or roots which are baked, ground and used as a coffee substitute and supplement. It is also grown as a forage plant for poultry and animal. In addition, chicory herb plays a key role as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, immunological, productive and reproductive enhancer, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anticancer, anti-protozoal, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, analgesic, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, wound healing and bitter tonic without inducing therapeutic adverse effect. Regarding the hepatoprotective activity, chicory extract reduced the levels of hepatic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Also, chicory plant is a good and very important protective source for hepatocytes and other liver cells as well as it is used as prebiotic against some species of pathogenic bacteria for both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, it enhances immunity and feed efficiency by decreasing pathogenic microorganisms of gastrointestinal tract. Cichorium intybus roots also were used for the relief of mild digestive disorders, such as feeling of flatulence, abdominal fullness, temporary loss of appetite and slow digestion. The present study highlights the importance of chicory as a feed additive used to improve growth and productive performance of poultry as well as salient beneficial applications in animals and humans. Furthermore, it explains the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of chicory and to find the effective level in poultry that would act as liver tonic.
  Farman Ali Siyal , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Chao Wang , Xioli Wan , Jintian He , Mingfa Wang , Lili Zhang , Xiang Zhong , Tian Wang and Kuldeep Dhama
  Background and Objective: Lecithin is a feed supplement and dietary source of several active compounds; therefore, this study evaluated the Soybean Lecithin (SL) in broiler diets by measuring performance, nutrient utilization, serum parameters and hepatic antioxidant status. Methodology: About 216 days old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were allotted into three groups as follow: the first group was fed a Basal Diet (BD) without emulsifier; the second and third groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0.05 (SL0.05) and 0.1% (SL0.10) of SL, respectively. Results: During starter, grower and overall period, chicken fed with SL has better daily gain and feed intake compared with control, while feed conversion was improved in SL0.10 throughout the experiment compared to SL0.05 and control. At 21 and 42 days old, SL0.10 showed highest relative liver weight compared to SL0.05 and control (p<0.05). On day 21, digestibility of dry matter, ether extract and protein in chickens fed diet with SL0.10 was significantly improved in comparison with those fed SL0.05 and control. Cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein concentrations were decreased in SL0.10 group in comparison with control. Serum glucose was higher in SL0.10 group compared to SL0.05 and control. Feeding SL0.10 resulted in the decreased hepatic malondialdehyde content and remarkably increased catalase, total superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity enzyme activities. Conclusion: Feeding soy lecithin at 0.10% improved performance, reduced cholesterol and triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum broilers. In addition, soy lecithin is suitable for improving antioxidant status and has ability to protect against oxidative stress.
  Mohd Iqbal Yatoo , Archana Saxena , Arumugam Gopalakrishnan , Mahmoud Alagawany and Kuldeep Dhama
  Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disease with global prevalence and rising incidence. Diabetes represents a major health issue in all age groups in the present times owing to its multisystem involvement and serious complications. Despite drug development and therapeutic interventions, successful treatment of diabetes still remains a challenge and worldwide research is focused on these aspects. Conventional antidiabetic medicines include injectable insulins, sulfonylureas, biguanides, glucosidase inhibitors and glinides. New class include inhalable insulins, incretin mimetics, amylin analogues, gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues, peroxisome proliferator activated receptors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. From effectiveness of synthetic drugs, chemicals or hormones to issues of cost, availability and side effects, novelty in preparations to methods of administration, all fields are explored for better management of the disease. Medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential have been recent areas of research. Asteraceae, Araliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminoseae, Liliaceae, Moraceae and Rosaceae are the major antidiabetic plant families. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. Their phytoconstituents have shown promising results in diabetes management; but need to be properly evaluated at molecular, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological levels for various prophylactic and therapeutic attributes, mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety before application in diabetes. The common phytoconstituents include polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins etc. Exploration of novel targets like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) for antidiabetic drugs and medicinal plants with emphasis on site specific effectiveness and overcoming problems of resistance, side effects, prolonged usage and high cost, are being investigated for future research.
  Li Chang Xing , Dhanasikar Santhi , Abdul Ghaffar Shar , Muhammad Saeed , Muhammad Asif Arain , Akhtar Hussain Shar , Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto , Mohib Ullah Kakar , Robina Manzoor , Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Kuldeep Dhama and Mo Chen ling
  Medicinal plants have gained great popularity and their importance is realized world over. Psyllium (Plantago ovata) is a native plant of India. The hydrophilic mucilloid, water-soluble fiber derived from psyllium husk and seed had been used since ancient times as vital curative agent for constipation, mainly as a part of the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Psyllium is a rich source of fiber and has numerous other therapeutic impacts such as cholesterol lowering, antidiarrhoeal, laxative, antidiabetic, energy increasing, hemorrhoid remedy, soothing inflammation and weight loss agent. Psyllium husk plays a key role in lowering serum cholesterol, so psyllium is being considered as a potential supportive agent in the therapy of hyperlipidemia. The cholesterol level is lowered in different animal models by the binding of psyllium husk with bile acids in the small intestine and thus reducing its absorption. The husk of psyllium could be used as an additive in milk replacer of the neonatal dairy calves to improve the physiological functions and enhance the performance and health status. Psyllium may also has positive impacts in growth and productive performance of different poultry species. The main aim of this review was to discuss the role of psyllium in managing the hypercholesterolemia in humans and the application of psyllium huskas a safe feed additive in poultry farming for the production of organic and low cholesterol designer egg and meat.
  Mayada Ragab Farag , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Muhammad Arif , Tugay Ayasan , Kuldeep Dhama , Amlan Patra and Kumaragurubaran Karthik
  Chromium (Cr) is one of the essential minerals which is required for improving productive performance in poultry due to its important functions in metabolism, growth and reduction of lipid and protein peroxidation. Under heat stress conditions, Cr plays a crucial role in poultry nutrition, production and health as well as enhances growth performance and quality of eggs in meat and egg type chickens, respectively. Supplementation of Cr may increase body weight gain, improve feed efficiency and there is also increase in carcass yield of broilers. Chromium is also a potent hypocholesteremic and antioxidant agent. The beneficial impacts of Cr have been linked with improved the metabolism and immune system. Dietary addition of Cr has promising impacts on the immune system through increasing relative weights of lymphoid organ such as thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius, declined heterophil/ lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, enhancing the Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) response and improving the antibody response versus the infectious diseases. Dietary supplementation of Cr may stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes by improving the functions of liver and pancreas. Chromium present in many forms differs greatly in stability and oxidation states; therefore the added forms and concentrations should be managed well. Further, the increase in Cr dose in the diet could produce hazardous and toxic influences in chickens as well. This paper illustrates the positive and negative impacts of Cr including its physical and chemical proprieties, practical applications in poultry nutrition, production, enhancing immunity and health and a special reference to its toxic effects.
  Muhammad Saeed , Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack , Mahmoud Alagawany , Muhammad Naveed , Muhammad Asif Arain , Muhammad Arif , Rab Nawaz Soomro , MohibUllah Kakar , Robina Manzoor , Ruchi Tiwari , Rekha Khandia , Ashok Munjal , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Kuldeep Dhama , Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal and Chao Sun
  Green tea is an important herb and its products are extensively used in the traditional Chinese medicinal system through various formulations. Several reports have revealed its beneficial usage and medicinal aspects for various ailments. Consumption of green tea has gained special attention and popularity in various sectors of the modern era of changing lifestyle. This review aimed to extend the current knowledge on the modes of action and beneficial applications of green tea in humans and animals for safeguarding different health issues. The nutritional, immunological, pharmacological and physiological functionalities of green tea are because of the available bioactive components like caffeine, L-theanine, polyphenols/flavonoids and others. It possesses multi-beneficial potential in treating and preventing various disorders of animals and humans, as well as promoting animal (dairy, piggery and goatry) and poultry industry. The present review provides insights on the modes of action and beneficial applications of green tea, which will be useful for nutritionists, pharmacists, physiologists, researchers, veterinarians and animal and poultry producers. Future research emphasis and promotional avenues are needed to explore its potential therapeutic applications for designing appropriate pharmaceuticals, complementary medicines and effective drugs to popularize and propagate its multidimensional health benefits.
  Zhiming Shu , Akhtar Hussain Shar , Mohamed Shahen , He Wang , Mahmoud Alagawany , Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack , Shahmir Ali Kalhoro , Muhammad Rashid and Piar Ali Shar
  Globally the cardiovascular disease (CVDs) and coronary heart disease (CHD) are main cause of death. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest plants in the world, originating in China, science is known as the "living fossil". Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBLE) is a bioactive substance extracted from the Ginkgo biloba, the main active ingredients of Ginkgo flavonoids and ginkgolide compound, three or four, one of the most important Ginkgo biloba leaves extract is widely used as a drug or food additive in more than 130 countries. Thousands of years ago Asian and other region was use the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), they verified some effective disorders. The medicinal uses of Ginkgo biloba have been widely used for various disease including cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. The properties of Ginkgo are mentioned here for example; improved blood flow, antioxidant, strengthens blood vessels, anti-inflammatory, relaxes the lungs, vasodilator and circulatory system tonic. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract also appears to have an anti-inflammatory impact that may make it useful in the future for situations like organ transplants and multiple sclerosis. However, due to the multi component of the herb, up to now the molecular mechanisms of action and signaling pathways leading to the therapeutic effects of GBLE remain, still, poorly understood.
 
 
 
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