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Articles by Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
Total Records ( 16 ) for Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  Problem statement: From the early days of, researchers have developed electronic models of neurons designed to emulate neural behavior with electrical signals that mimic in some ways the measured potentials of biological neurons. Researchers interested in fabricating artificial neurons have long sought a simple and techniques to produce devices that efficiently store synaptic weights, which is behind holding a particular state in relation to conductance parameters. As Engineers become closer to realizing accurate hardware models of neurons, the need for a simple analog memory device grows correspondingly. To determine the storage characteristics of polyethylene oxide based polymer as the base material for high charge storage analogue neural switch.
Approach: Various devices prepared under controlled conditions. Each device tested for its impedance characteristics as a function of both frequency and temperature. Mathematical model developed to account for the obtained characteristics.
Results:The heat treated devices showed stability, repeatability and ability to store enough charge for long time periods. Impedance analysis proved a similar response to the actual neural switches.
Conclusion:
The symmetrical behavior for such devices opened a wide application area for the manufacturing of low and high frequency analogue devices for intelligent system applications.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani and Nidal F. Shilbayeh
  A PIC controlled IR system for the control of vehicle side mirror system movements for the purpose of revealing blind spots is designed and implemented. The designed and built system allows the side view mirrors to be adjusted based on the driver head movement. The infrared-based head tracking system maps a predetermined coordinates for head movements and results in a triangularly computable geometry, which is fed to the PIC, based controlling system. This will cause the vehicle mirror movement via carefully selected miniature motors.
  Nidal F. Shilbayeh and Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  The voltage/current characteristics and the effect of NO2 gas on the electrical conductivity of a PbPc gas sensor array is investigated. The gas sensor is manufactured using vacuum deposition of gold electrodes on sapphire substrate with the lead-phathalocyanine vacuum sublimed on the top of the gold electrodes. Two versions of the PbPc gas sensor array are investigated. The tested types differ in the gap sizes between the deposited gold electrodes. The sensors are tested at different temperatures to account for conductivity changes as the molecular adsorption/desorption rate is affected by heat. The obtained results found to be encouraging as the sensors showed stability and sensitivity towards low concentration of applied NO2 gas.
  Abdfatah A. Yahya and Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  A novel system for remote tracking of personnel was proposed. The system was based on assuring that the moving tracked code belongs to the actual person assigned such a code by smelling and temperature measuring the person who holds such a device. The system would operate using a specific RF signal and allows for an accurate, economic and secure environment in which diverse of people can interact together.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  Problem statement: Most exhaustive NDT techniques require large capital equipment, are difficult to apply to complex geometric structures and, above all, are time-consuming to use and some take a considerable time to complete. As a solution to the problems associated with NDT applications, there is a need to establish an intelligent analysis system that supports a portable testing environment, which allows various types of inputs and provides sufficient data regarding damage severity in the tested structure. Approach: This research investigated possible fast NDT systems and algorithms and provides a novel approach that allows engineers and researchers to pinpoint defects in real time. The system was based on incident signals on a composite surface being detected and analyzed. Any damage in the composite causes a change in the detected signal. The proposed technique is suitable for high volume monitoring and inspection of safety critical components non-destructively. It unified through conversion the extracted information from irrelevant background using the developed Classification Algorithm with the ability to correlate obtained data to level of damage and it is effect on the structure overall performance. Results: The feasibility of using time measurements to establish the integrity of RIM composites using a handheld, low frequency, electronic tapping device has been studied. The relationship between damage and component thickness had also been established. Conclusion: A mathematical model describing the composite time response and its relation to both level of damage and tensile strength was presented. An excellent agreement between the model and the testing data was observed. Also the credibility of the measuring device and its promising future as a cheap on line NDT testing instrument was proved.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  Problem statement: A novel approach to security applications that makes use of odors as password generators is developed and tested. The developed system detects and converts odor signals that are randomly selected to binary signals and then intelligently compares them with previously stored values. Approach: The interface device in question then either opens its interface if comparison is successful or applies security measures to extra protect resources from intrusion. The used odor keys are initially unknown to the user as it is randomly selected from a box containing many types, adding extra security to the system. This approach eliminated any possibility of hacking into the system and provides passwords which were truly secured. Results: Normal interfacing methods and algorithms were subject to hacking and infiltration. Random odor combinational keys are a novel, well secured biometric interfacing means to a wide range of systems. Design and testing of a practical electronic nose that can be used as a security interface in a wide variety of applications with a combinational odor key algorithm that ensures a hacking free environment. Conclusion/Recommendations: Successful implementation of human-machine interface through a highly secured electronic nose with very encouraging results in terms of possible odor combinations and multi-dimensional password generation.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  Design, modeling, testing and analysis multi-gap PbPc sensor array units for the purpose of gas detection are carried out. The tested devices showed reduction in conductance as a function of increasing gap width and reducing film thickness and an increase as a function of temperature up to 160°C. An observed morphological change in the sublimed film is realized at 190°C as the conductance of the sensor array started to drop. Analytical modeling using semi-infinite coplanar electrode arrangement supported the obtained testing results. Problem statement: Stability in gas detection and subsequent discrimination is closely related to sensor design and test parameter and its response to an applied set of chemicals. Approach: To enhance sensor performance and improve sensor designs, a suggested design with mathematical analysis and gas response analysis is carried out. Results: A solid analytical mathematical model is established with both electric field and conductance equations. Effect of deposited sensor film thickness and inter-electrode separation on its response is also established and proved through practical test data. Conclusion: The obtained experimental results agree with the derived mathematical solutions.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  Problem statement: Intelligent systems that need to accurately represent human brain requires analogue devices such as a neural switch that processes decision signals and can actually remember the made decision. Polymeric material such as PEO10LiCF3SO3, which previously used in high energy, long life storage batteries, is used here to implement the principle of storage with the required analogue memory. Approach: A number of PEO10LiCF3SO3 devices tested in a controlled environment and their impedance response to both frequency and temperature recorded, analyzed and plotted for interpretation. Results: The tested devices showed ability for charge storage due to its variable impedance response at a range of frequencies, while sustaining very high impedance at DC. The device response found to be affected by intermediate temperatures, with symmetrical response at both low, mid and high temperatures. Conclusion: The designed and tested device showed promising characteristics in terms of memory storage as a neural switch. Its high impedance at DC and low impedance at high frequencies with logarithmic response represented the desired features in a reprogrammable analogue device.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  A novel approach to signal detection and identification was developed and tested. The new algorithm was based on provision of tagging a Matched Filter (MF) with identifiers to recognize the source signal with and without noise, so that classification can be carried out. The algorithm was applied successfully to chemical Sensor Array Units (SAU). Problem statement: Signals obtained from chemical sensors were sometimes contaminated with noise. Detection of known signals from noisy surroundings was critical in the field of sensors and their applications. Approach: Six chemical sensor array units were tested at different gas concentrations. The testing was carried out under normal conditions and with the presence of noise. The developed algorithm was then applied to detect, identify and classify the results. Results: The 5-3-1 algorithm produced symmetrical arrays with the source signal identifiers at the corners. The symmetry allowed the use of one-third of the produced data for identification, saving processing time and memory storage. Conclusion: The obtained data also proved that gap separation between conducting electrodes to inversely affect device conductance, with different gap widths affected similarly with temperature change per constant deposited film thickness. Also, each device conductance increased in response to increase in applied gas concentration.
  Nidal F. Shilbayeh and Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  Problem statement: The effect of varying the number of nodes in the hidden layer and number of iterations are important factors in the recognition rate. In this study, a novel and effective criterion based on Cross Pruning (CP) algorithm was proposed to optimize number of hidden neurons and number of iterations in Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural based recognition system. Our technique uses rule-based and neural network pattern recognition methods in an integrated system in order to perform learning and recognition of dynamically printed numerals Approach: The study investigated the effect of varying the size of the network hidden layers (pruning) and number of iterations (epochs) on the classification and performance of the used MLP. The optimum number of hidden neurons and epochs was experimentally established through the use of our novel Cross Pruning (CP) algorithm and via designing special neural based software. The designed software implements sigmoid as its shaping function. Results: Experimental results were presented on the classification accuracy and recognition. Significant recognition rate improvement is achieved using 1000 epochs and 25 hidden neurons in our MLP OCR numeral recognition system. Conclusions/Recommendations: Our approach has a significant improvement in learning and classification of any numeral, character MLP based recognition system.
  Nidal F. Shilbayeh and Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  A comprehensive mouse gesture system is designed and tested successfully. The system is based on UNIPEN algorithm in terms of mouse movements and applies its geometrical principles such as angles and transposition steps. The system incorporates Neural Networks as its learning and recognition engine. The designed algorithm is not only capable of translating discrete gesture moves, but also continuous sentences and complete paragraphs. Hopfield Network is also used for initial learning to add a feature of language independence to the system.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani and Nidal F. Shilbayeh
  An electronic nose system for multi application purposes is designed and tested. Our hardware design allows various types of sensors to be used for different applications. The system is capable of being interfaced to both analog and digital instruments with special filtering devices that isolate the system from surrounding signals. The design of the system is distinguished through the use of two logic controlled micro fans that stabilize the system atmosphere, which surrounds the smelling sensor and also serves an important function of removing any adsorbed odors on the surface of the sensor. Comprehensive mathematics are used to design and describe each part of the presented system, which allows methodical development and changes of the system parameters for future advances. Testing of the hardware was carried out under computer control using various TGS sensors such as TGS822, and TGS824 and TGS30. Database based software with neural network facility was designed to interface the built hardware and to process the electronic nose signals before being classified.
  Nidal F. Shilbayeh and Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  A PIC controlled IR system for the control car mirror system movement is designed and implemented. The designed and built system allows the side view mirrors to be adjusted based on the driver head movement. The infrared based head tracking system maps a predetermined coordinates for head movements and results in a triangularly computable geometry which is fed to the PIC based controlling system. This will cause the vehicle mirror movement via carefully selected miniature motors. The system takes blind spots and their angles into consideration.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  The influence of information and communication technology on the collective activities and interests of a broad range of people was discussed and analyzed. The important consequence of ICT called digital divide was mathematically modeled and the results analyzed. The closed loop feedback model proved the need for a society to be educationally, culturally, economically and politically ready to integrate and implement new technologies into its infrastructure.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  Problem statement: Many NDT systems used for damage detection in composites are difficult to apply to complex geometric structures, also, they are time-consuming. As a solution to the problems associated with NDT applications, an intelligent analysis system that supports a portable testing environment, which allowed various types of inputs and provided sufficient data regarding level of damage in a tested structure was designed and tested. The developed technique was a novel approach that allowed locating defects with good accuracy. Approach: This research presented a novel approach to fast NDT using intelligent image analysis through a specifically developed algorithm that checks the integrity of composite structures. Such a novel approach allowed not only to determine the level of damage, but also, to correlate damage detected by one imaging technique using available instruments and methods to results that would be obtained using other instruments and techniques. Results: Using the developed ICA algorithm, accurate classification was achieved using C-Scan and Low Temperature Thermal imaging (LTT). Both techniques agreed on damage classification and structural integrity. Conclusion: This very successful approach to damage detection and classification is further supported by its ability to correlate different NDT technologies and predict others.
  Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani
  A novel algorithm for head gestures interpretation is designed and tested. The designed system carries out gesture detection and recognition using the MGDA algorithm, which implements random sampling and importance sampling, such technique can track head poses and estimate head positions. Problem statement: Head position is an important indicator of a person’s focus of attention, which can be used as a key for multi-view face analysis assuming that face recognition and identification to be viewed dependently. This will help in selecting the best view model. Also, in the past few years face detection and person identification became important issues due to security concerns, leading to head gesture algorithm development and implementation. Approach: The captured image was allocated a map after which a file conversion process is carried out, allowing the next stage of image data conversion of head poses to be applied. This results in a specific number of matrices per pose that hold the necessary information. Such information was then allocated sequences representing head gesture poses which is combined for classification and correlation purposes to regenerate a predicted time reconstructed continuous movements. Results: A reliable, fast and robust approach for static head gesture recognition was achieved and presented. Conclusion: This very successful approach to head pose detection and gesture classification is strongly supported by its ability to correlate different signal input technologies as the devised algorithm can accommodate different inputs.
 
 
 
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