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Articles by Mahendra Singh
Total Records ( 3 ) for Mahendra Singh
  Mahendra Singh , A.K. Roy and Shikha Sharma
  Pregnancy and lactation are the physiological states which modify metabolism in animals and induce stress. The period of transition between late pregnancy (-3 weeks) and early lactation (+3 weeks) presents huge metabolic challenges in terms of energy balance, plasma metabolites and hormonal changes. High rates of Body Condition Score (BCS) losses are associated with a severe negative energy balance conditions immediately after the calving. Energy deficiency due to decreased dry matter intake during the periparturient period results in increased lipolysis of body fat. The release of non-esterified fatty acids and higher β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations are indicative of lipid mobilization and fatty acid oxidation. Animals have to utilize their body reserves to support lactogenesis and milk production resulting in metabolic disorders and sub-optimal milk yield under these conditions. Most of the lactating animals are fed crop residues in the tropical countries, which are generally low in energy, protein and minerals. Increased amount of energy secreted into milk fat and lesser feed intake puts high yielder cows and buffaloes in negative energy balance (NEBAL), metabolic disorders and suboptimal milk production. Maximizing the energy intake by increasing the energy density of diet is a logical feeding strategy during transition period and in early lactating animals. Feeding large amounts of cereal grains decrease ruminal pH, ruminal fiber digestibility, acetate/propionate ratio, milk fat concentration and increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. Scientific interventions have been carried out from time to improve energy balance by supplementing bypass fat and proteins. Bypass fats are commonly referred to as ruminal inert fat, protected fat and escape fat and are more expensive per unit of energy provided compared to commodity fats. Calcium salts of fatty acids increase milk yield and fat contents but partially degrade in the abomassum. Prill fat, a bypass fat is available in different forms and augments productive performance of lactating animals by getting digested in the small intestine. However response varies depending upon the milk production levels and the body condition of animals. The present review discusses the role of bypass fat in enhancing the milk production performance and its effect on hormones, digestibility coefficients and energy balance.
  Mohammad Rayees Dar , Mahendra Singh , Rachana Sharma , Sunita Thakur , Aasif Ahmad Sheikh and Showkat Ahmad Bhat
  Bovine seminal plasma proteins and its analogs are a family of structurally related proteins characterized by the presence of tandem fibronectin domains. Proteins of the bovine seminal plasma family have low molecular mass (12-30 kDa). Bovine seminal plasma is a protein rich fluid and is involved in sperm motility, capacitation, post testicular maturation event and sperm oocyte binding necessary for sperm to acquire the ability to fertilize an oocyte. Sperm binding proteins have been categorized based on its energy, structural and other functional proteins. As the name implies, these proteins play a vital role in sperm binding to the oviductal epithelium and formation of the oviductal sperm reservoir. Infertility is an important aspect of animal reproduction with much etiological ambiguity. Sperm binding proteins orchestrate the biochemical reactions which govern the fertility of cattle. Bovine seminal plasma contains fertility-associated proteins that are predictive of bull fertility.
  Nilufar Haque , Mahendra Singh and S.A. Hossain
  Animal husbandry plays an important role in strengthening the rural economy. Heat is a major constraint on animal productivity in the tropical belt and arid areas. Heat stress in dairy cows as all temperature-related forces encourage changes or adjustments which may occur from the cellular to the total animal level to help the cows stay away from physiological disorders and then to better adapt to an adverse thermal environment. Milk production is impaired as a result of the drastic changes in biological functions under heat stress. Activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis by external stress liberates cortisol into blood plasma, which in turn induces the liberation of Plasminogen Activator (PA) from the mammary epithelial cells, where it activates the Plasminogen-Plasmin (PG-PL) system. Thus, this PA-PG-PL system is a milk-borne factor which down regulates the milk secretion during the summer stress. This negative feedback system specifically forms β-casein (CN) fragment (f) (1-28) from β-CN, which acts as the negative control signal of mammary gland. Based on these findings, casein hydrolyzate preparation is developed to reduce suffering from mammary gland engorgement associated with abrupt cessation of milking and to treat common clinical and subclinical infections of udder in dairy cows.
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