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Articles by M.Z. Jaafar
Total Records ( 4 ) for M.Z. Jaafar
  S. Omar , M.Z. Jaafar , A.R. Ismail and W.R.W. Sulaiman
  The natural pressure in hydrocarbon reservoirs is only sufficient in producing small amount of hydrocarbon at the end of the depletion stage. Therefore, in order to enhance or increase the hydrocarbon recovery, water or other fluids are injected into the formation to extract the hydrocarbon from the pore space. This common practice is known as Improved or Enhanced Oil Recovery (IOR or EOR). Foam is purposely used in some of the EOR displacement processes in order to control the mobility ratio, hence improving the volumetric sweep efficiency. The efficiency of a foam displacement process in EOR depends largely on the stability of the foam films. In laboratory, foam stability is usually measured through physical observation of the foam bubble in a glass tube. Unfortunately, this direct observation is not possible in the reservoir. Therefore, indirect measurement such as the measurement of electrokinetic signal would be a better alternative. This study aims to determine the correlation between the foam stability and the associated electrokinetic potential signals which resulted from the flowing fluid in Foam Assisted Water Alternate Gas (FAWAG) process. The investigation includes sample preparation, sample analysis, displacing fluid formation, rheological properties test, foam stability test and electrokinetic signal measurement by using NI Data Acquisition System (NIDAS). It is expected that the variations of foam bubble stability will change the pattern of the electrokinetic signals. The research findings could lead to a new approach in monitoring a FAWAG process. Application in the real field could benefit the oil and gas industry in term of making the EOR process more efficient and more economic.
  S.M.M. Anuar , M.Z. Jaafar , W.R.W. Sulaiman and A.R. Ismail
  Spontaneous Potential (SP) is commonly measured during reservoir characterization. The SP signals are also generated during hydrocarbon production due to the streaming potential occurrence. Measurement of streaming potential has been previously proposed to detect the water encroachment towards a production well. The objectives of this study are to quantify the magnitude of the SP signal during production by WAG injection and to investigate the possibility of using SP measurements to monitor the sweep efficiency. The peak of the signal corresponds to the waterfront, where there is a change of saturation from ionic water to non-polar hydrocarbon. Similar trend is predicted in the case of WAG, where we have several interfaces between the injected water and the injected gas. This project involves numerical modeling and experimental work. Results from the experimental work will be used in the simulation work to correlate the measured SP signals with the distance of the waterfront in the WAG process. These observations suggest that WAG displacement process can be monitored indirectly from the signal acquired. Water or gas override can be detected and controlled if wells were equipped with inflow-control valves. This study is significant because monitoring the progress of water and gas in a WAG process is key in the effectiveness of this enhanced oil recovery method. Measurement of the streaming potential provides another method besides using tracers to monitor the WAG profile. Better monitoring will lead to more efficient displacement and great benefits in term of economy and environment.
  M.Z. Jaafar , A. Mohd Nasir and M.F. Hamid
  Excessive water production is one of the main problems in oilfields. Isoelectric point (IEP) is defined as the point of pH at which a solid surface, such as sandstone or carbonate rock, submerged in an electrolyte, exhibits zero net charge. Previous studies reported different values of IEP for carbonate and sandstone rocks, mostly utilizing the electrophoresis technique. Precise values of IEP for both types of reservoir rocks need to be investigated in order to interpret the streaming potential signal. Recently, streaming potential measurement has been proposed to be applied in managing oilfields. By combination of intelligent well technology and streaming potential measurement, water encroachment will be able to be detected proactively. The IEP measurement will start in low salinity (1x10-3 M), seawater salinity (0.6 M) and high salinity (5.5 M) brine solutions. The voltage measurements will be recorded continuously by National Instrument Data Acquisition System using Labview software. Values of IEP were determined from a plot of voltage against pH for every run. Measured values of IEP for both carbonate and sandstone rocks were lied in range of 9.40-9.60 and 2.2-2.8, respectively. As the pH of the flowing fluid get closer to the IEP, the surface charge becomes smaller and so does the magnitude of the streaming potential. The knowledge of the IEP values for both types of reservoir rocks plays a crucial role in understanding the ion-sorption processes at the mineral and solution interface. Having the understanding will enable the streaming potential signal to be interpreted accurately. As a result, water encroachment issue will be overcome efficiently.
  S.R. Suradi , N.S. Mamat , M.Z. Jaafar , W.R.W. Sulaiman and A.R. Ismail
  Drilling of high angle, horizontal and other more complex trajectory wells are common strategies to economically produce hydrocarbon from the reservoirs. During directional drilling, hole cleaning is a vital aspect which needs to be monitored and controlled. For this purpose, foam-based mud using the Under Balanced Drilling technique (UBD) is employed to obtain a better cutting transport. Solid particle is one of the lubricating agents that is widely used in water-based mud. Previous studies have shown that microbeads could significantly reduce the friction in water-based mud. However, the application of polymer beads in foam-based mud is yet to be proven. Similar to the improvement in the water-based mud, it is expected that polymer beads such as Styrene Methacrylate could enhance the rheological properties of the foam-based mud. The polymer beads might significantly reduced the torque and drag by reducing the coefficient of friction of the foam-based mud. Polymeric particles could act as the foam or emulsion stabilizer which improved the stability of the foam. The half-life of the bubbles could be extended due to the addition of polymers. The fine sizes of the polymer beads were enhanced the stability of bubbles. Theoretically, the gas phase in the foam drilling mud was pulled the cuttings upward because of their buoyancy, thereby counteracting the gravity force. Therefore, the more stable the bubble in the foam drilling, the better the cuttings transportation will be. Introduction of polymer beads in the foam-based mud improved the foam stability. Reduction of the torque and drag force improved the carrying capacity of the cuttings in directional drilling. The suitable lubricating agent can reduce the drilling operation problems such as stuck-pipe. This will result in smooth drilling operation and great benefits in term of economy.
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